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1/19. Reptile-associated salmonellosis--selected states, 1996-1998.

    During 1996-1998, CDC received reports from approximately 16 state health departments of salmonella infections in persons who had direct or indirect contact with reptiles (i.e., lizards, snakes, or turtles). Salmonella infection can result in invasive illness including sepsis and meningitis, particularly in infants. Despite educational efforts, some reptile owners remain unaware that reptiles place them and their children at risk for salmonellosis. This report summarizes clinical and epidemiologic information in four cases and provides information about state regulations to prevent transmission of Salmonella spp. from reptiles to humans. ( info)

2/19. Infantile Salmonella meningitis associated with gecko-keeping.

    A serotype found mainly in reptiles was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid from a 2 month old baby with meningitis. A related salmonella was isolated from gecko faeces from the floor of the tank in the baby's home, suggesting a possible source of infection, and indicating the need for hygienic precautions in homes where reptiles are kept as pets. ( info)

3/19. Salmonella virchow infection in an infant transmitted by household dogs.

    A 4-month-old male infant manifested diarrhea and Salmonella Virchow was isolated from his stool. The pathogen was repeatedly isolated from the infant over one month despite three regimens of treatment with antibiotics, to which the isolate was sensitive. Three household dogs were kept in his home and S. Virchow was isolated from two of them. The infant was admitted to hospital and was treated with antibiotic, then the pathogen was finally eliminated. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern and PFGE pattern produced by restriction enzyme Xba I of the isolate from the infant was completely similar to those of the isolates from the dogs. The above findings indicated that the present S. Virchow infection in the infant was transmitted by the household dogs. ( info)

4/19. Salmonellosis in a human infant, a cat, and two parakeets in the same household.

    Salmonellosis occurred in a human infant, cat, and 2 pet parakeets in the same household. salmonella typhimurium var copenhagen was isolated from all 4 subjects; however, its original source was never determined. The parakeets subsequently died, and necropsy revealed enteritis, foci of hepatic necrosis, and leptomeningitis. ( info)

5/19. Canine salmonellosis: A review and report of dog to child transmission of salmonella enteritidis.

    dogs have been shown to harbor 53 salmonellae serotypes. Multiple simultaneous infections with 2 to 4 serotypes have been observed. The prevalence of canine salmonellosis may be a high as 27 per cent. salmonella typhimurium and S. anatum are the most common etiologic agents. dogs commonly experience a sub-clinical course of salmonellosis. Some investigators state that the dog may serve as a source of human infections. A few reports in the literature have documented this fact. The transmissions of S. enteritidis from dog to child is described in this article. ( info)

6/19. Salmonella Give infection in 2 dairy herds.

    Salmonella Give infection was investigated in 2 adjacent dairy herds because of the impact of milk contamination on public health. Once the status of the infection in a herd was established by fecal analyses, consecutive fecal testings, in conjunction with preventive measures, appeared to be consistent and cost-effective tools for the monitoring and control of salmonellosis in dairy herds. ( info)

7/19. Reptile-associated salmonellosis--selected states, 1998-2002.

    During 1998-2002, CDC received reports from state health departments regarding salmonella infections in persons who had contact with reptiles (e.g., lizards, snakes, and turtles). salmonella infections usually cause gastroenteritis but can result in invasive illness (e.g., septicemia and meningitis), especially in infants and immunocompromised persons. For decades, reptiles have been known as a source for salmonellosis; however, numerous reptile owners remain unaware that reptile contact places them and other household members, including children, at greater risk for salmonellosis. Increasing evidence suggests that amphibians (e.g., frogs, toads, newts, and salamanders) also can pose risks for salmonellosis in humans. This report describes cases of reptile-associated salmonellosis in six states, offers recommendations on preventing transmission of Salmonella from reptiles and amphibians to humans, and provides an update on state regulations mandating education at pet stores about salmonellosis. ( info)

8/19. Lizard-associated salmonellosis--utah.

    During June 1992, CDC identified a rare Salmonella serotype, S. poano, from a stool specimen from an infant. The specimen was sent from the utah Division of Laboratory Services. This report summarizes the epidemiologic investigation of this case. ( info)

9/19. salmonella enterica subspecies houtenae serotype 44:z4, z23:--as a rare cause of meningitis.

    reptiles can carry and shed the bacterium Salmonella without showing any signs of illness. Transmission occurs by ingesting Salmonella after handling a reptile or objects contaminated by a reptile. Young children are especially vulnerable to Salmonella infection and can experience serious complications. We describe a case of reptile-associated Salmonella meningitis in a 2.5-month-old infant. ( info)

10/19. Animal-to-human transmission of salmonella typhimurium DT104A variant.

    salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from a pig, a calf, and a child on a farm in the netherlands. The isolates were indistinguishable by phenotyping and genotyping methods, which suggests nonfoodborne animal-to-animal and animal-to-human transmission. persons in close contact with farm animals should be aware of this risk. ( info)
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