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11/19. Human salmonellosis transmitted by a domestic turtle.

    salmonella typhimurium was isolated in the culture test of a small child admitted to hospital suffering from febrile gastroenteritis with stools containing traces of mucus and blood. Her mother also resulted positive for this microorganism. The family had recently bought a small turtle, imported from florida, at the city fair. Further tests revealed salmonella typhimurium in both the turtle's feces and the water in its tank. ( info)

12/19. Salmonellosis associated with pet turtles--wisconsin and wyoming, 2004.

    Salmonellosis associated with small pet turtles in the united states was a major public health concern in the 1970s. In 1975, the food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned commercial distribution of small turtles (i.e., those with a carapace of <4 inches). The FDA ban prevents an estimated 100,000 cases of salmonellosis among children each year. However, a recent resurgence in the sale of small turtles has generated concern. In wisconsin and wyoming, at least six human cases of salmonellosis have been linked to such turtles. This report describes the investigation into those cases. The findings underscore the need for health and environmental officials to prevent illegal distribution of small turtles and consider patient contact with turtles when investigating salmonellosis cases. ( info)

13/19. Outbreak of multidrug-resistant salmonella typhimurium associated with rodents purchased at retail pet stores--united states, December 2003-October 2004.

    During 2004, the minnesota Department of Health (MDH) public health Laboratory notified CDC about the isolation of multidrug-resistant salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium from ill hamsters from a minnesota pet distributor. This report describes two of the first identified human cases associated with this outbreak, summarizes the multistate investigation of human S. Typhimurium infections associated with exposure to rodents (e.g., hamsters, mice, and rats) purchased at pet stores, and highlights methods for reducing Salmonella transmission from pet rodents to their owners. This is the first documented salmonellosis outbreak associated with pet rodents. Findings demonstrate that the handling of pet rodents is a potential health risk, especially for children. public health practitioners should consider pet rodents a potential source of salmonellosis. ( info)

14/19. An unusual sequel to imported Salmonella zanzibar.

    In August, 1980 a rare serotype S. zanzibar was isolated in the North of scotland from a man home on leave from malaysia, whence he returned in November having been bacteriologically negative 2 months previously. In December however, S. zanzibar was isolated from a bulk milk sample taken at a nearby dairy farm. No illness occurred among milking cows which had been brought inside from pasture in mid-October. Since 1972 a variety of different salmonella serotypes had been identified in cattle, milk and other samples at this farm, with seagulls being implicated as the vector transmitting infection from the sewage of a local town on to farmland and an adjacent loch. Although water from this source has not been used in recent years for drinking by cattle, it is utilized for washing floors within the dairy premises. Since 1979, following an outbreak affecting consumers, all milk produced at the farm has been pasteurized. ( info)

15/19. Veterinary surgeons as vectors of Salmonella dublin.

    Salmonella dublin is an important bovine pathogen, causing dysentery, abortion, and death from septicaemia. S dublin dermatitis, a little-recognised occupational hazard for veterinary surgeons, does not cause serious disability or inconvenience. During a survey of brucellosis in south-west wales four cases of S dublin dermatitis were seen in veterinary surgeons. One surgeon was reinfected three years later. On all five occasions the veterinary surgeons had not worn or had discarded polyethylene gloves. An apparently healthy cow may serve as a latent carrier of S dublin. Thus when disease starts in a closed, protected herd reactivation of infection within the herd is usually blamed and its introduction by extraneous agents considered to be unlikely. Veterinary surgeons should be regarded as potential vectors of S dublin. ( info)

16/19. African pygmy hedgehog-associated salmonellosis--washington, 1994.

    During 1994, the washington Department of Health public health Laboratory reported the isolation from a human of a rare Salmonella serotype, Salmonella serotype Tilene. This report summarizes the epidemiologic investigation of the case by the Seattle-King County Department of public health, which suggested the infection was related to exposure to African pygmy hedgehogs. ( info)

17/19. Salmonella infection acquired from reptilian pets.

    Two children presented with signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis. Salmonella chameleon was isolated from the stool of one child and also from an iguana kept in the home as a pet. salmonella arizonae was isolated from the stool of the other child and also from four snakes sharing the same household. Exotic reptiles are unsuitable pets to share the home environment with infants. ( info)

18/19. United front--veterinary and medical collaboration.

    Four cases of concomitant animal and human Salmonellosis were investigated. Liaison took place between veterinary, public health medical and environmental health professionals. An epidemiological association between veterinary and medical disease outbreaks was established following cases in a dairy unit, a poultry unit, a calf rearing unit and one pig and dairy unit (on the same farm). In three cases clinical disease in animals preceded clinical disease in humans while in the fourth case, the poultry unit, salmonella isolations from poultry carcasses coincided with clinical salmonellosis in a human working with the live poultry. Important epidemiological factors are identified. The problems of delay in seeking veterinary advice, compartmentalisation of veterinary and medical practices, and the benefits of direct collaboration between veterinary and medical professionals in the event of a diagnosis of salmonellosis in animals and/or humans are highlighted. A collaborative reporting and liaison model is proposed. ( info)

19/19. Chicken fancier's spleen.

    Splenic epidermoid cysts are rare congenital lesions which usually present insidiously with non-specific symptoms such as dull left upper quadrant pain, or as incidental findings on clinical examination. We present a chicken breeder who presented as an emergency with a tender left upper quadrant mass and septicaemia secondary to zoonotic infection of a primary splenic cyst with salmonella enteritidis. The cystic nature of the swelling was confirmed by ultrasound and the anatomy assessed with computed tomography. She was aggressively resuscitated and underwent laparotomy and splenectomy, after which she made an uncomplicated recovery. The importance of early diagnosis and surgical treatment is discussed, together with the measures required as prophylaxis against overwhelming post-splenectomy sepsis. ( info)
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