Cases reported "Sarcoidosis"

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1/156. Solitary sarcoid granuloma of the cerebellopontine angle: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: sarcoidosis involves the nervous system about 5% of the time and usually manifests as a granulomatous inflammation of the basal meninges and hypothalamus. Cases which are strictly isolated to the central nervous system occur infrequently; rarely, they may present as an intracranial mass. methods: We present the case of a solitary sarcoid granuloma at the cerebellopontine angle in a 42-year-old female who presented with headache, facial numbness, and hearing loss. RESULTS: A suboccipital craniectomy was performed and the lesion was noted to be grossly adherent to the lower cranial nerves and skull base. The lesion was misdiagnosed as a meningioma with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative histology, and perhaps additional morbidity resulted. CONCLUSION: We present this case in order to demonstrate the importance of differentiating these dural-based lesions and propose that cases of neurosarcoidosis presenting as a solitary granuloma be treated with surgical debulking and immunosuppression.
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2/156. Bilateral optic disk edema caused by sarcoidosis mimicking pseudotumor cerebri.

    PURPOSE: To present a case of retrobulbar optic nerve and chiasm sarcoidosis that mimicked pseudotumor cerebri. methods: A 34-year-old, thin, black woman presented with transient visual obscurations, normal visual acuity, bilateral optic disk edema, and enlarged blind spots. Clinical, medical, and radiologic evaluations were consistent with pseudotumor cerebri. The patient improved while taking acetazolamide, but 6 months later her symptoms worsened. neuroimaging disclosed enhancement of the optic nerve and chiasm. RESULTS: Despite administration of intravenous corticosteroids, the patient's vision worsened. Bilateral optic nerve sheath fenestrations were performed, and pathology disclosed sarcoidosis. CONCLUSION: sarcoidosis of the optic nerves and chiasm may mimic pseudotumor cerebri.
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3/156. central nervous system sarcoidosis--diagnosis and management.

    A series of 68 patients with neurosarcoidosis is reported, with particular emphasis on clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment. A classification system based on clinical diagnostic probability is proposed, consisting of probable and definite disease, the latter being dependent on finding sarcoid granulomas on nervous system histology, which was obtained in 12 patients (18%). The role of investigations, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), chest radiography, Kveim skin test, gallium 67 isotope scanning and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies, is considered. Sixty-two percent of patients presented with nervous system disease, most commonly affecting the optic nerve and chiasm. Other common presentations included cranial nerve palsies, spinal cord and brainstem manifestations. Investigations yielding most diagnostic information included the kveim test (41/48, 85% positive), raised CSF protein and/or cells (50/62, 81%) and gallium 67 scan (14/31, 45%). Eleven out of 29 patients (38%) patients showed meningeal enhancement on MRI scanning and 43% of scans demonstrated multiple white-matter lesions. Mean follow-up for the group was 4.6 years. Forty-seven patients were seen for > 18 months, and over half of these patients progressed despite corticosteroid and other immunosuppressive therapies. The benefit of a large patient database prospectively studied, with extended follow-up is discussed in order to learn more about prognosis and advance therapy in neurosarcoidosis.
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4/156. polyradiculopathy in sarcoidosis.

    We present three new and 14 retrospective cases of polyradiculopathy in sarcoidosis. Of these, 71% had weakness and 59% areflexia of the lower extremities, and 35% had sphincter dysfunction. Cases often were associated with central nervous system sarcoidosis. All cases involved thoracolumbar or lumbosacral roots, except a single case of cervical polyradiculopathy. Of 14 treated patients, nine improved with corticosteroids, laminectomy, or both. polyradiculopathy complicating sarcoidosis: (1) is uncommon; (2) primarily involves thoracic and lumbar roots; (3) may arise from contiguous, hematogenous, or gravitational nerve root sleeve seeding; (4) may be asymptomatic; and (5) may improve with corticosteroids. Differential diagnosis of weakness in patients with sarcoidosis should include nerve root involvement from the primary process by direct sarcoid involvement.
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5/156. Cutaneous sarcoidosis with cardiac involvement.

    Despite the clinical importance of cardiac involvement in the prognosis of sarcoidosis, it is often overlooked because of the subclinical disease progression and difficulty in diagnosis. We report here five patients with cutaneous sarcoidosis lesions where cardiac involvement was detected with the appearance of mild cardiac symptoms on a careful examination of the heart after cutaneous sarcoidosis was diagnosed. In four of the five cases, the patients had annular lesions while the fifth case showed a nodular eruption on the face. Three of the five patients showed complete AV block while one showed complete right bundle block and left bundle anterior branch block. All four patients with conduction disturbances underwent a permanent pacemaker implantation with prednisolone tapering therapy. The remaining patient had congestive heart failure and was treated with prednisolone alone. The present findings support the belief that sarcoidosis patients with cutaneous lesions, especially facial annular lesions, should be carefully examined and monitored for cardiac involvement, even in cases without apparent cardiac symptoms.
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6/156. A rare case of sarcoidosis with bilateral leg lymphedema as an initial symptom.

    A 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral leg lymphedema. He also showed subcutaneous nodules and CT scan disclosed multiple enlarged lymph nodes at thoracic, abdominal, and inguinal areas. biopsy of the inguinal lymph node and the subcutaneous nodule revealed noncaseating epithelioid cell granuloma, a finding consistent with sarcoidosis. lymphedema was attributed to the blockade of lymph flow by the systemic lymph node involvement of the disease. Within 1 week after the initiation of steroid therapy, his leg edema disappeared. lymphedema could be the initial symptom of systemic sarcoidosis.
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7/156. AV-block III in a patient with sarcoidosis mimicking sjogren's syndrome.

    A 55-year old woman with a diagnosis of primary sjogren's syndrome suddenly developed AV-block III. A diagnostic procedure finally revealed sarcoidosis with multiorgan involvement.
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8/156. The optic pathway in neurosarcoidosis.

    A case is reported of a patient, age 40 yr, with progressive hypothalamic and visual failure. autopsy revealed widespread multisystemic sarcoidosis with involvement of the central nervous system. The intracranial portion of the optic pathway was diffusely infiltrated by sarcoid granulomas. Comparison of this case with previously reported autopsy and biopsy findings leads to the following conclusions: 1) The intraocular, intraorbital, and intracranial parts of the optic nerves may be involved independently; 2) lesions of the nerve head and of the retrobulbar part of the nerve may be unilateral; and 3) involvement of the intracranial portion is usually bilateral and forms part of more widespread sarcoidosis of the central nervous system.
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9/156. Confluent choroidal infiltrates with sarcoidosis.

    PURPOSE: To report the occurrence of confluent plaquelike choroidal infiltrates in four patients with sarcoidosis. methods: The medical records of patients with choroidal plaquelike infiltrates and presumed systemic sarcoidosis seen in the Mayo Clinic were reviewed. RESULTS: The cohort included four patients with confluent plaquelike choroidal infiltrates and systemic sarcoidosis. The most common ophthalmic symptom experienced by the patients was mild blurring of vision. The salient ophthalmic findings were choroidal infiltrates generally unaccompanied by other features frequently seen with sarcoidosis such as periphlebitis, multiple small yellowish choroidal infiltrations, vitreous cellular reaction, and granulomatous anterior uveitis. The choroidal lesions were confluent, yellowish, irregularly thickened infiltrates that frequently radiated peripherally from a peripapillary location in an ameboidlike pattern. fluorescein angiography demonstrated early hypofluorescence and progressive patchy hyperfluorescence with late staining of the active lesions. Treatment with either systemic or subconjunctival steroids was associated with improvement in vision and partial resolution of the choroidal lesions. In two patients some of the lesions resolved spontaneously and became replaced by areas of chorioretinal atrophy. CONCLUSION: Plaquelike yellowish choroidal infiltrates associated with systemic sarcoidosis may occur in eyes remarkably free of other signs of inflammation. The infiltrates tend to radiate from the region of the optic nerve in a confluent ameboidlike pattern. They generally respond to corticosteroids and may be the first recognized manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis.
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10/156. Successfully treated complete atrioventricular block with corticosteroid in a patient with cardiac sarcoidosis: usefulness of gallium-67 and thallium-201 scintigraphy.

    A 71-year-old male with sarcoidosis was followed for 6 years without steroid therapy. He was admitted because of complete atrioventricular block. Chest X-ray showed hilar lymphadenopathy. Echocardiogram showed mild left ventricular hypertrophy without local wall thinning. Cardiac sarcoidosis was diagnosed by a defect of thallium-201 (Tl-201) imaging and abnormal uptake of gallium-67 (Ga-67). After the start of corticosteroid therapy, complete atrioventricular block was recovered. Abnormal uptake of Ga-67 was improved. Tl-201 and Ga-67 are useful to diagnose cardiac sarcoidosis, to evaluate the lesion of cardiac involvement and to estimate the efficacy of corticosteroid therapy.
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