Cases reported "Sarcoidosis"

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1/1920. Solitary sarcoid granuloma of the cerebellopontine angle: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: sarcoidosis involves the nervous system about 5% of the time and usually manifests as a granulomatous inflammation of the basal meninges and hypothalamus. Cases which are strictly isolated to the central nervous system occur infrequently; rarely, they may present as an intracranial mass. methods: We present the case of a solitary sarcoid granuloma at the cerebellopontine angle in a 42-year-old female who presented with headache, facial numbness, and hearing loss. RESULTS: A suboccipital craniectomy was performed and the lesion was noted to be grossly adherent to the lower cranial nerves and skull base. The lesion was misdiagnosed as a meningioma with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative histology, and perhaps additional morbidity resulted. CONCLUSION: We present this case in order to demonstrate the importance of differentiating these dural-based lesions and propose that cases of neurosarcoidosis presenting as a solitary granuloma be treated with surgical debulking and immunosuppression. ( info)

2/1920. Bilateral optic disk edema caused by sarcoidosis mimicking pseudotumor cerebri.

    PURPOSE: To present a case of retrobulbar optic nerve and chiasm sarcoidosis that mimicked pseudotumor cerebri. methods: A 34-year-old, thin, black woman presented with transient visual obscurations, normal visual acuity, bilateral optic disk edema, and enlarged blind spots. Clinical, medical, and radiologic evaluations were consistent with pseudotumor cerebri. The patient improved while taking acetazolamide, but 6 months later her symptoms worsened. neuroimaging disclosed enhancement of the optic nerve and chiasm. RESULTS: Despite administration of intravenous corticosteroids, the patient's vision worsened. Bilateral optic nerve sheath fenestrations were performed, and pathology disclosed sarcoidosis. CONCLUSION: sarcoidosis of the optic nerves and chiasm may mimic pseudotumor cerebri. ( info)

3/1920. Renal granulomatous sarcoidosis in childhood: a report of 11 cases and a review of the literature.

    We analysed retrospectively 11 children with renal granulomatous sarcoidosis confirmed by renal histology in order to describe the course and prognosis of the disease. Symptomatic sarcoidosis was diagnosed at a mean age of 10.1 years. Nine children had renal involvement at the time of diagnosis. In the course of the disease, nine patients developed renal failure and mild proteinuria, seven had transient sterile leukocyturia, four showed microscopic haematuria, seven had a urinary concentrating defect, and enlarged kidneys were seen in three patients. One child had hypercalcaemia and hypercalciuria, none had hypertension. light microscopy of the kidney showed interstitial infiltration by mononuclear cells in all children, interstitial fibrosis in nine patients, epithelioid granulomas in seven, tubular involvement in eight, and mild glomerular involvement in seven patients. Renal immunofluorescence was negative. Ten children received prednisone for 1-11 years. After a mean follow up of 5.5 years, three patients had entered end-stage renal failure and one had chronic insufficiency after interruption of medical supervision and prednisone therapy. CONCLUSION: Renal failure, proteinuria, leukocyturia, haematuria, and concentration defect are the prominent features of renal granulomatous sarcoidosis in children. Steroid therapy, adjusted according to disease activity, may prevent end-stage renal failure. ( info)

4/1920. sarcoidosis with selective involvement of a second liver allograft: report of a case and review of the literature.

    A case of sarcoidosis recurrent in a patient's second liver allograft is described. There was no granulomatous disease seen in the patient's first liver allograft. After the second orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), the patient was successfully treated for acute rejection, aspergillus infection, and cytomegalovirus viremia. Approximately 2 months after the second OLT, the patient was treated with long-term interferon-alpha for recurrent hepatitis c. Five years after the operation, he experienced liver failure secondary to recurrent hepatitis and underwent a third OLT. This is only the second reported case of sarcoidosis recurrent in the liver parenchyma of a transplanted organ and the first in which interferon-alpha might have played a role. ( info)

5/1920. Systemic sarcoidosis presenting with multiple tattoo granulomas and an extra-tattoo cutaneous granuloma.

    We describe a 29 year old Caucasian man who developed cutaneous sarcoidosis manifesting itself as a tumour at the left outer canthus clinically mimicking a basal cell carcinoma and nine tattoo granulomas. Subsequent investigation revealed that the patient was also suffering from systemic sarcoidosis. ( info)

6/1920. Double cancers of the lung and esophagus associated with a sarcoid-like reaction in their regional lymph nodes: report of a case.

    A case of double cancers of the lung and esophagus associated with a sarcoid-like reaction in their regional lymph nodes is reported. A 73-year-old man with hemosputum was found to have a mass in his right lower lung field on a chest X-ray. Based on a diagnosis of lung cancer, a right middle and lower lobectomy with a dissection of the lymph nodes was performed. Microscopically, a well developed granulomatous reaction was seen in the dissected mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes. Three years after the pulmonary resection, he was admitted to our hospital because of dysphagia. A diagnosis of lower esophageal cancer was made. A lower esophagectomy with a total gastrectomy was performed. A sarcoid-like reaction comprising epithelioid cells and giant cells was seen in the regional lymph nodes. No clinical findings indicative of systemic sarcoidosis were observed. This rare condition may therefore help to improve our overall understanding of the relationship between malignant neoplasms and sarcoid-like reactions in the regional lymph nodes. ( info)

7/1920. The clinical management of sarcoidosis. A 50-year experience at the Johns Hopkins Hospital.

    sarcoidosis is an enigmatic disease with extremely variable manifestations in pattern, severity and course. Since Longcope and Freiman's descriptive monograph in 1952 (50) summarizing the clinical findings of the first half of this century, new dimensions of assessing the disease and treatment have been added. The impact of corticosteroids is central. The present review extends the studies to the second half of this century. Earlier diagnosis is facilitated and treatment often reverses many of the disease manifestations and improves the quality and extent of life for the patient. The management issues and guidelines outlined in this paper for both intrathoracic and extrathoracic disease are based on several longitudinal studies of the sarcoidosis patients summarized here, and 50 years of clinical experience by the senior author (CJJ) at Johns Hopkins Hospital, a tertiary referral center with an active Sarcoid Clinic. case reports are presented in the appendix. It is clear that corticosteroids are the most effective therapeutic agent for sarcoidosis, usually with impressive and prompt response. This represents the dramatic difference in this disease after 1950. No more specific or effective immunosuppressive or antiinflammatory agents have been identified. Undesirable side effects are minimal if excessive doses are avoided. The effectiveness of "steroid-sparing agents" such as methotrexate is uncertain. Although irreversible tissue damage from the disease may limit the effectiveness of treatment, benefits of corticosteroids greatly exceed the negative side effects. Since spontaneous remissions without treatment do occur, a period of observation of 2 years are more is warranted if the patient is relatively asymptomatic. Gradual radiographic progression for 2 or more years, even without major symptoms or reduction in pulmonary function, indicates the need for a trial of corticosteroid treatment, especially in white patients where symptoms may lag behind the radiographic changes. Relapses as treatment is withdrawn are frequent, especially in African-American patients, who tend to have more severe and more prolonged disease than white patients. A minimum of 1 year of treatment is recommended unless no improvement is noted after 3 months. Continued low-dose prednisone at daily doses of 10-15 mg is helpful in preventing relapses and further progression of disease. Periodic attempts at tapering are justified. Repeated relapses may indicate the need for life-long treatment. When irreversible changes are present, especially in the presence of chronic fibrotic disease, changing goals of treatment to provide optimal supportive care may represent better management than having unrealistic expectations from increased corticosteroid dosage or the addition of other potentially toxic immunosuppressive agents. Many agents related to sarcoidosis require further research. The most important question facing sarcoid researchers today is etiology. It is difficult to design specific therapy when the fundamental causes and disease mechanisms are not established. Rather than being a single disease with a single cause, it is possible that a number of genetic factors and environmental or infectious agents may result in an immune response that is manifested as sarcoidosis. Understanding basic causal mechanisms may help explain the varied disease manifestations and aid in designing curative treatments. Such etiologic questions should be explored from both a basic science and an epidemiologic approach. Therapeutic trials of new drugs such as pentoxyfylline and possibly thalidomide are needed to address their potential as well as limitations of steroid therapy. Finally, for patients who have progressed to organ failure, the problems of sarcoid recurrence in transplanted tissue, increased allograft rejection, and long-term prognosis of solid organ transplants have yet to be resolved. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) ( info)

8/1920. sarcoidosis presenting as a tumorlike muscular lesion. Case report and review of the literature.

    Sarcoid myopathy presenting as a tumorlike lesion is an exceedingly rare presentation of sarcoidosis. Concurrent extramuscular involvement is common. Chest radiographs, if abnormal, may suggest the diagnosis. magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred study for diagnosis and follow-up of tumorous sarcoid myopathy. Optimal therapy is not clear. Favorable responses have been cited with surgery or corticosteroids (alone or in combination). azathioprine or alternative immunosuppressive agents (for example, antimalarials or methotrexate) may have a role in corticosteroid-recalcitrant patients. The role of local radiotherapy is controversial and should be reserved for severe localized disease refractory to aggressive medical therapy. ( info)

9/1920. Granular cell myoblastoma (schwannoma) of the carina in a patient with sarcoidosis.

    The sixth case report of granular cell myoblastoma (schwannoma) of the carina, occurring in a 22-year-old black woman, is presented. Incidental coexistent carcoidosis was present. The various theories of the histogenesis of the lesion are reviewed briefly. ( info)

10/1920. sarcoidosis associated with multiple large pulmonary nodules.

    Parenchymal manifestations of pulmonary sarcoidosis include a diffuse, symmetric, reticulonodular interstitial pattern, a fibrotic pattern, and an acinar pattern. Large pulmonary nodules in sarcoidosis are rare, and their frequency (> 1 cm in diameter) has been estimated at 2-4%. We report a rare case of sarcoidosis associated with large bilateral pulmonary nodules. These nodules reached up to 7 cm in diameter, which is larger than any others reported previously. Furthermore, these nodular lesions developed within only 6 months of normal chest X-ray results and were not found to accompany bilateral hilar lymph adenopathy, which is observed in the usual course of sarcoidosis. As described above, this case of pulmonary sarcoidosis was significant not only in terms of the large size of the nodules but also the unique chest X-ray course. ( info)
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