Cases reported "Sarcoma, Small Cell"

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1/11. Fine needle aspiration cytology of desmoplastic small round cell tumor. A case report.

    BACKGROUND: Intraabdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a recently recognized type of primitive sarcoma characterized by a predilection for young males, a usually very aggressive course and generally unsuccessful therapy. A primitive histologic appearance with prominent desmoplasia and striking divergent multilineage differentiation are well-described morphologic features of this tumor, along with a consistent fusion of the EWS and WT1 genes at the molecular level. The cytologic literature contains only scattered references to this type of neoplasm. Detailed information on the clinical and fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy and the immunocytochemical and ultrastructural findings in a patient with DSRCT is presented. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old male had a firm abdominal mass with multiple secondary lesions of the liver. An FNA biopsy was performed under ultrasonographic guidance. CONCLUSION: FNA of the liver nodules showed cohesive groups of small cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and inconspicuous nucleoli; immunocytochemically vimentin and desmin showed characteristic perinuclear globular positivity. FNA cytology is an effective means of diagnosing deeply located lesions. The cytologic features of DSRCT need to become familiar to pathologists and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of liver metastasis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sarcoma
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2/11. Biphasic intra-abdominal desmoplastic small cell tumor in a patient with proximal spinal muscular atrophy.

    A case is reported of intra-abdominal desmoplastic small cell tumor (IDSCT) with biphasic histologic features in a patient with proximal spinal muscular atrophy. The tumor was composed of small epithelial cell nests with spindle cell sarcomatous areas. Both areas were surrounded by a desmoplastic stroma. Immunohistochemical studies revealed reactivity for low molecular weight cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin, desmin and Leu-7 in both areas. Electron microscopic examination demonstrated paranuclear aggregates of intermediate filaments, zonula adherens and basement membrane-like material in the epithelial cells, while spindle cells in the tumor had fewer intracytoplasmic organelles. However, intermediate or transitional forms of both types of tumor cells were frequently observed. Although IDSCT are known to express multi-phenotypes immunohistochemically, attention should be paid to the broad spectrum of cell morphology in these tumors.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sarcoma
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3/11. Small round cell tumor with biphenotypic differentiation and variant of t(21;22)(q22;q12).

    A 14-year-old boy presented with a soft tissue swelling on the outer aspect of his left upper arm. Examination of the tumor by light microscopy showed a small round cell tumor with a rare focus of myogenic differentiation. Myogenic differentiation was confirmed on ultrastructural examination by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Conventional G-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated a complex variant of t(21;22)(q22;q12). By RT-PCR, the EWS-ERG fusion transcript was defined as type 9e. This tumor was unusual in that it showed characteristics of myogenic and neural differentiation, and contained a rearrangement of the EWS gene consistent with a diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma. This supports the hypothesis that a class of biphenotypic childhood sarcomas, with features of myogenic and neural differentiation, exists that may be related to the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors.
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ranking = 3
keywords = sarcoma
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4/11. pathology quiz: small cell osteosarcoma.

    A 15-year-old black male presented with shortness of breath, leg weakness, and pain in his back and rib cage. Four years previously he had noticed a lump in his upper back and complained of pain when playing basketball, especially on contact to that area. Recently, the pain had become more constant and increased in intensity. This was associated with loss of control in his legs, weakness, and paraesthesia. General physical examination revealed a palpable mass in the right midline upper back. Laboratory results were within normal limits. Radiographic scans demonstrated a destructive soft tissue mass at T6 vertebral body with scattered stippled calcification (Figure 1). The patient underwent a biopsy followed by excision of the mass (Figure 2) and decompressive laminectomy with reconstruction.
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ranking = 4
keywords = sarcoma
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5/11. Recurrent intrapulmonary malignant small cell tumor of the thoracopulmonary region with metastasis to the oral cavity: review of literature and case report.

    Malignant small cell tumor of the thoracopulmonary region (MSCT) was first described in 1979 and has been referred to as the Askin tumor. This malignant neoplasm is a member of the peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PPNET) family and typically involves the periosteum, soft tissue, and extrapulmonary tissue of the thoracic wall. MSCT may also involve the lung parenchyma by local extension or may arise de novo in peripheral lung tissue. Local recurrence, abdominal involvement by tumor extravasation across the diaphragm, and skeletal metastatic disease are relatively common. However, metastasis to the head and neck region and in particular to the oral cavity is extremely rare. We present a recurrent intrapulmonary MSCT with metastasis to the oral cavity in an adolescent Hispanic boy, and review the literature regarding this member of the PPNET family. Differentiation from neuroblastoma may be made based on immunoreactivity for beta 2 microglobulin and HBA71 and lack of immunoreactivity for chromogranin in PPNET and MSCT. Ultrastructural features commonly seen in MSCT and PPNET are round to ovoid tumor cells with occasional cytoplasmic processes with relatively few pleomorphic dense core granules. These tumors lack the gangliocytic and Schwann cell differentiation that is characteristic of neuroblastoma. MSCT and PPNET have a common reciprocal cytogenetic translocation [t(11;22)q(24;q12)], which is shared with Ewing's sarcoma. prognosis in MSCT is quite dismal, with a 2-year survival of 38% and a 6-year survival of only 14%.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sarcoma
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6/11. Use of human dura in pediatric chest wall reconstruction after tumor resection.

    The most difficult aspect of the surgical treatment of chest wall tumors is reconstruction of the large residual defect. Materials that have been used include Marlex, Goretex, Vicryl, bone, metal, and fascia. The authors' successful experience with dehydrated human dura (Tutoplast) for moderate-size defects is described. A large Askin's tumor in a 13-year-old boy required resection of the right posterior aspect of the 9th to 11th ribs and the transverse process of T-10, the 12- x 12-cm thoracic defect was closed with dura. Partial soft-tissue coverage was obtained with the latissimus dorsi muscle. Although a scoliosis secondary to paraspinal muscle resection has developed, the chest wall is stable, without evidence of a flail chest, at 18 months of follow-up. A 6-year-old girl underwent left anterior chest wall resection of three ribs for an epithelioid sarcoma. Human dura and a myocutaneous flap were used for reconstruction, with good functional and cosmetic results at 16 months of follow-up. Dura is simple to use, has low antigenicity, and in experimental studies appears to be incorporated into the tissues, acting as a collagen matrix. For moderate-size chest wall defects, it appears to be an excellent alternative to synthetic prosthesis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sarcoma
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7/11. Small round and spindle cell sarcoma with neuronal differentiation and oncocyte-like features of the thoracic wall: a case report with histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examinations.

    A case of small round and spindle cell sarcoma with neuronal differentiation and oncocyte-like features is presented. The tumor was encountered in a 32 year old Japanese woman with an initial presentation of palpable tumor in the left lateral region of the thorax. The resected tumor was a partially well encapsulated whitish medullary one and consisted of small round and spindle tumor cells, together with so-called rhabdoid cells in the small round cell area. Although pseudorosettes were often observed, true rosette formation could not be detected anywhere. Ultrastructurally, despite a histologic variety of tumor cells, most tumor cells possessed numerous mitochondria, some of which occasionally contained abnormal filamentous or crystalloid structures. Various amounts of microfilaments were present in most tumor cells and microtubules were present in a few. A minority of small round cells possessed a small number of neurosecretory granules, especially in short cytoplasmic processes. A positive immunoreaction for neuron specific enolase was found by immunohistochemical examination in several small round tumor cells and for neurofilaments in lesser numbers. Despite the lack of S-100 protein, MB2 was detected in both small round and spindle cells. On the basis of these findings, the tumor of the present case corresponds to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with neuronal differentiation and oncocytic features.
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ranking = 5
keywords = sarcoma
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8/11. Detection of the EWS/WT1 gene fusion by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor.

    We report two cases of intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor with characteristic clinical, histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features. Fusion of the EWS gene on chromosome 22 and the WT1 gene on chromosome 11, resulting from the chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(p13;q12), was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in both cases. This translocation has been previously reported in this type of tumor using either cytogenetic or molecular biological techniques. Tumor tissue from both cases revealed no chimeric fusion transcripts characteristic of the Ewing sarcoma family of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors or of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, two tumors in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor. This report demonstrates the utility of molecular studies as an adjunct in the diagnosis of this rare and aggressive tumor.
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ranking = 2
keywords = sarcoma
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9/11. Postmenopausal intra-abdominal desmoplastic small cell tumor.

    Intra-abdominal desmoplastic small cell tumor (DSCT) usually occurs in infants and young male adults. A case of DSCT occurring in a 60 year old female is described. No other apparent primary origin was detected. A mesocolon tumor, measuring 23 x 12 x 10 cm, was composed predominantly of round to spindle cells which showed epithelioid- and focally sarcomatous arrangements. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed perinuclear dot-like staining of CAM5.2, many cells expressed HHF35, and some cells contained vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, neuron-specific enolase, or Leu 7. Electron microscopic examination showed that the tumor cells had mesenchymal-fibroblastic features. The tumor had an aneuploid dna content with high S-phase fraction. The patient, who was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, was alive, having had three recurrences in 36 months. In the second and third recurrent lesions, increased cellular atypia and fascicular arrangements of spindle cells were observed. DSCT should be included in differential diagnoses of post-menopausal pelvic tumors which show light-microscopically and immunohistochemically divergent phenotypes.
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ranking = 1
keywords = sarcoma
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10/11. Molecular features in a biphenotypic small cell sarcoma with neuroectodermal and muscle differentiation.

    We report a case of a 13-year-old girl with soft tissue sarcoma of the hand, which showed muscle and neuroectodermal immunophenotypes. Molecular studies were performed on rna collected from fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology and peripheral blood samples by nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot analysis. This biphenotypic tumor showed simultaneous expression of EWS-FLI1 and PAX3-FKHR transcripts, specific of Ewing family tumors and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, respectively. Although childhood sarcomas with simultaneous muscle and neural differentiation have been described to have EWS-FLI1 transcripts, there are no reports of tumors with both transcripts. Cytological specimens are a good source of rna for molecular studies.
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ranking = 7
keywords = sarcoma
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