Cases reported "Scalp Dermatoses"

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1/19. Four cases of sebopsoriasis or seborrheic dermatitis of the face and scalp successfully treated with 1a-24 (R)-dihydroxycholecalciferol (tacalcitol) cream.

    A 71-year-old woman visited our clinic due to the presence of widespread scaly erythema on her face, scalp, and lower extremities. She was tentatively diagnosed as having seborrheic dermatitis but the symptoms were difficult to distinguish from psoriasis vulgaris. As a result, she was diagnosed as having sebopsoriasis. She was treated topically with an active vitamin D3 compound, 1a-24 (R)-dihydroxycholecalciferol D3 (tacalcitol) cream. She applied tacalcitol cream twice daily for 4 weeks, and her facial eruptions thus cleared up completely. No recurrence was observed for 2 months thereafter, even though the use of tacalcitol cream was stopped. To investigate whether or not tacalcitol cream is generally effective for the treatment of such seborrheic dermatitis-like eruptions, three more patients were treated with tacalcitol cream. All patients exhibited scaly erythematous macules on the face and/or scalp, and their eruptions improved rapidly with tacalcitol cream. Tacalcitol cream was thus found to be effective and useful for the treatment of both sebopsoriasis and even seborrheic dermatitis of the face and scalp.
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2/19. Lichen planopilaris.

    P, a 20-year-old laborer displayed initial symptoms of the disease in question when he was 10 years old. Initially he had an asymptomatic progressive loss of hair on the scalp. A couple of years later he had mild to moderate pruritis, and the appearance of slate-blue eruptions on the scalp and elsewhere on the body. This resulted in a complete loss of hair on the vault of the scalp, which led him to seek specialist opinion. Skin surface examination revealed the presence of grayish-blue acuminate follicular papules, disposed singly and in groups (plaques). The pilo-sebaceous orifices were conspicuously obliterated and filled by keratin plugs. Perifollicular erythema was a predominant feature on the scalp. The lesions were present over the scalp, around the neck, chest, back, axillae, groin and legs. Shiny atrophied scalp skin depicting scarring alopecia mimicking male-type baldness was a salient feature. In addition, it was studded with conspicuous acuminate papules in its center (Fig. 1a). The known nonhairy (glabrous) skin had classic lichen planus lesions (Fig. 1b). Hemotoxylin-eosin stained microsections prepared from typical lichen planus (LP) lesions over the abdomen and those of lichen planopilaris (LPP) of the scalp were simultaneously studied. The former revealed changes in the epidermis comprising of hyperkeratosis, increase in thickness of stratum granulosum, hydropic degeneration of the basal cell layer and band-like lympho-histiocytic infiltrate pressing against and invading the epidermis, while the latter revealed uniform atrophy of the epidermis and vacuolization of basal cells. The hair follicles were dilated and were filled with keratin plugs. In addition to fibrosis of the dermis, pigment laden microphages and lympho-histiocytic infiltrate was prominent. The follicles and the sebaceous glands were absent. However, arrectores pilorum and sweat glands were preserved (Fig. 2a,b).
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3/19. Isonicotinic acid hydrazide induced anagen effluvium and associated lichenoid eruption.

    A 32 year-old woman developed generalised lichenoid eruptions on her body followed by diffuse loss of scalp hair of the anagen effluvium type. She was receiving several anti-tubercular drugs, including rifampicin, isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH), pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, for abdominal tuberculosis. INH, which is a leading cause of drug eruptions in the above group of drugs was withdrawn. However, the other antitubercular drugs were continued along with 40 mg of prednisolone in a single daily morning dose. The latter was discontinued slowly over a period of 10 weeks. There was complete recovery of hair loss and the regrowth started after 12 weeks of alopecia. Such anagen effluvium with lichenoid eruption following INH therapy has not been observed previously. The complete recovery from anagen effluvium is difficult to explain, but it could have been because of the early initiation of corticosteroid.
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4/19. Topical nitrogen mustard ointment with occlusion for Langerhans' cell histiocytosis of the scalp.

    BACKGROUND: Topical nitrogen mustard solution has been used as an effective alternative to corticosteroids for the treatment of cutaneous eruptions of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH). When used as an ointment under occlusion, nitrogen mustard may still be effective and possess less risk of unwanted side effects. methods: A patient with scalp LCH was treated topically with nitrogen mustard ointment 0.01% under occlusion. RESULTS: The lesions cleared in 3 weeks without irritation. CONCLUSION: Topical nitrogen mustard ointment 0.01% under occlusion is a well-tolerated, non-irritating treatment for scalp LCH.
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5/19. hydroa vacciniforme-like eruptions in a patient with chronic active EB virus infection.

    We report a case of chronic active Epstein-Barr (EB) virus infection (CAEBV) associated with skin eruptions mimicking hydroa vacciniforme (HV) in a 4-year-old boy. The patient had repeated episodes of vesiculo-necrotic eruptions on the face, scalp, and bilateral forearms one year before the first visit to our department. General symptoms including fever, hepatosplenomegaly, abnormal liver function, and cervical lymph node swelling were noted three months before the first visit. At the first visit, small, bean-sized, erythemic papules with central necrosis were observed on the face and anterior chest wall. thumb-sized ulcers with crust were present on the bilateral forearms. Histopathological examination of an erythematous lesion in the submandibular area revealed parakeratosis with a thick crust, mild spongiosis in the epidermis, and a dense infiltration of lymphoid cells into the dermis and perivascular space. Laboratory examination showed EBNA x 40, EBV VCA IgG x 1,280, and EBV dna (PCR) 8 x 10(4). EBV-encoded small nuclear rna (EBER) positive cells were detected in the dermis by an in situ hybridization (ISH) method. Large granular lymphocytes (65%) with the NK cell phenotype were found in the peripheral blood. A real time PCR method showed 171,741 copies/ micro g dna in CD 16 positive cells. Although latent EBV infection-associated eruptions have been documented, detailed skin manifestations in CAEBV are less well known.
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6/19. Bullous and haemorrhagic lichen sclerosus with scalp involvement.

    We describe a patient who developed a generalized blistering eruption due to lichen sclerosus and who was observed to have scalp involvement. Both are unusual manifestations of this disease which merit consideration. Lichen sclerosus is an uncommon disease that most frequently affects the external genitalia of perimenopausal women. The aetiology is unknown. Approximately 20% of affected patients have extragenital lesions that present as small, ivory, shiny round macules or papules that later become atrophic; extragenital lesions are generally asymptomatic. Bullous and haemorrhagic forms may occur but these are generally localized and reports of extensive or generalized involvement are rare. We describe an elderly woman with generalized bullous lichen sclerosus. As an incidental finding, she was observed to have lichen sclerosus affecting her scalp. This has rarely been described and it would appear that she is the third reported case of scalp involvement.
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7/19. Epidermotropic metastases from breast carcinoma showing different clinical and histopathological features on the trunk and on the scalp in a single patient.

    A 54-year-old female presented with the cutaneous metastases of the breast carcinoma that produced combination of pigmented zosteriform eruption on the trunk and eroded plaque on the scalp, 13 years after radical mastectomy. Histologically, zosteriform lesions displayed prominent infiltration of the epidermis in nesting or linear pattern by neoplastic cells with focal formation of intraepidermal and subepidermal vesicles due to discohesion of tumor cells and dermal edema. Examination of scalp plaque revealed ulcerations and infiltration of the epidermis with scattered basal and suprabasal malignant cells in pagetoid fashion. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were cytokeratin 7- and estrogen receptor-positive and cytokeratin 20 negative. HMB-45 and Melan-A-stained numerous dendritic melanocytes intermingled with intraepidermal and superficial dermal tumor cells in the trunk lesion, whereas on the scalp, only occasional melanocytes surrounding intraepidermal carcinomatous cells were identified. Our case described, to our knowledge, so far unreported combination of individually rare, clinical and histological patterns of cutaneous metastases from breast carcinoma in a single patient.
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8/19. Barmah Forest viral exanthems.

    A series of five patients presented with eruptions beginning on the face. In each case the facial changes were characterized by urticated erythema with minimal epidermal change. The patients also demonstrated more widespread vesiculopapular, macular or purpuric eruptions. At presentation most patients were asymptomatic; however, several subsequently developed constitutional symptoms. Each of these patients was reactive for Barmah Forest virus immunoglobulin (Ig)M, and on repeat testing four were reactive for Barmah Forest virus IgG.
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9/19. Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans and acne keloidalis nuchae.

    A 27-year-old man presented with a 10-year history of scarring alopecia on the vertex of the scalp associated with follicular crusting and pustule formation, and a papular eruption on the posterior neck. Additionally, there was keratosis pilaris on the cheeks, eyebrows and thighs. histology from the vertex showed scarring with a mixed perifollicular inflammatory infiltrate and foci of acute suppurative folliculitis. With clinical correlation, the diagnosis of keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans and concurrent acne keloidalis nuchae was made. The association of keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans with acne keloidalis nuchae has not previously been described. The patient responded to treatment with oral isotretinoin 20 mg (0.25 mg/kg) daily for 12 months.
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10/19. Generalized pustulation as a manifestation of the anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome.

    BACKGROUND.-The anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome is characterized by the development of fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, and hepatitis, and is associated with leukocytosis and eosinophilia. This article describes the unusual development of a follicular pustular eruption in two patients as a manifestation of this syndrome. OBSERVATIONS.-This pustular eruption most commonly develops on the face and scalp but may subsequently become generalized. While cultures of the pustules are negative, biopsy specimens reveal a dilated follicular infundibulum filled with neutrophils. Recognition of cutaneous pustulation as a potential manifestation of this syndrome is important, as a generalized pustular eruption developing in a febrile patient can easily be confused with an infectious process. CONCLUSIONS.-The anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome may present with a follicular pustular eruption rather than the more commonly associated macular or papular rash or erythroderma. The three most commonly used anticonvulsants, phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine, can each produce an identical hypersensitivity reaction. In addition, in vitro testing has demonstrated that approximately 80% of patients tested to all three medications had positive reactions to each. Furthermore, with in vitro testing researchers are able to predict which anticonvulsants are safe to use, thereby allowing for prospective individualization of therapy. However, this technology is not yet available for widespread use.
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