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1/4. Sclerosing, pseudovascular rhabdomyosarcoma in adults. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of three cases.

    rhabdomyosarcoma in adults represents a rare soft tissue neoplasm which is seen most frequently in its pleomorphic subtype in this age group. Very rarely, clear cell and spindle-cell variants have been reported. In this study we describe three cases of rhabdomyosarcoma in adult patients, characterised by prominent hyaline sclerosis and a pseudovascular growth pattern. All cases were identified in the consultation files of one of the authors and routinely processed. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin sections with the alkaline phosphatase-antialkaline phosphatase method. The patients, two women and one man, were 40, 41, and 56 years old. One developed a deep-seated soft tissue mass in the left lower leg, and one, a tumour of the left upper jaw. In one patient a bone tumour in the proximal body of the sacrum without extension into soft tissues was seen. The patients were treated by wide excision, piecemeal excision and incomplete excision in one case each; additional radiotherapy was performed in all three cases, and chemotherapy in two patients. In one patient multiple pulmonary metastases were noted, which showed progression despite systemic chemotherapy. Histologically, the neoplasms were composed of round/polygonal and spindle-shaped tumour cells including typical rhabdomyoblasts. In all cases a pseudovascular pattern and prominent hyaline sclerosis of the intercellular matrix was seen. Immunohistochemically, tumour cells stained positively for desmin and muscle actin (HHF35) and also for markers of striated muscle differentiation (myogenin, MyoD1, fast myosin). In this paper an unusual morphological variant of rhabdomyosarcoma arising in adult patients is described, which should be added to the morphological spectrum of these neoplasms.
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keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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2/4. Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma in childhood: case report and review of the literature.

    rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue malignancy in children but is rare in adults. The latest world health organization classification of soft tissue tumors recognizes embryonal, alveolar, and pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcomas. More recently, a sclerosing variant of rhabdomyosarcoma has been recognized and reported in seven adult patients. We describe a pediatric case of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as a sacral mass in a 3-year-old girl. Morphologically, the tumor showed a prominent sclerosing hyaline matrix and demonstrated pseudovascular and microalveolar architectural foci. Focal positivity was seen with desmin, smooth muscle actin, and myogenin. MyoD1 showed uniform diffuse nuclear staining. Fusion transcripts were not demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular genetics matched those reported in the seven adult cases of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma. This is the first case report, to our knowledge, of this rare tumor arising in the pediatric age group, and we compare the features with those reported in adult sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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3/4. Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma: a rare variant with predilection for the head and neck.

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma is a newly described variant of rhabdomyosarcoma with a predilection for the head and neck. Little has been written on the topic, because of the scarcity of the disease and its recent recognition as a distinct entity. The present report describes the fifth confirmed case of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma and is the first report in the otolaryngology literature. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. methods: The authors have reported the case of a 66-year-old woman with a 35-year history of heavy cigarette smoking and daily alcohol consumption and a 2-month history of progressive dysphagia and dysarthria secondary to an enlarging tongue mass. Urgent tracheotomy was performed for impending respiratory embarrassment. Direct laryngoscopy revealed a bulky, exophytic mass involving the base of tongue. Specimens were obtained and submitted for analysis. RESULTS: Initial frozen-section analysis of the specimens favored carcinoma, although subsequent immunohistochemical analysis disproved this. The diagnosis of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma was based on microscopic appearance and patterns of gene expression, including the expression of desmin and myogenin. A search of the literature revealed only four confirmed cases of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma. With the inclusion of the oropharyngeal tumor in the present report, three of the five confirmed cases have occurred in the head and neck. CONCLUSION: Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare variant of rhabdomyosarcoma that has a predilection for the head and neck. The clinical presentation may mimic carcinoma. The otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon must be familiar with this disease entity.
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ranking = 1.8333333333333
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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4/4. Pediatric sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma, a particular phenotypic variant of rhabdomyosarcoma initially described in the adult population, has emerged as a potential pitfall in the evaluation of pediatric sarcomas. Because of its densely hyalinized collagenous matrix and its occasional expression of a pseudovascular pattern of growth, sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma has been at times misdiagnosed as chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, or angiosarcoma. We describe 3 pediatric patients with sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma and provide a detailed description of its distinguishing pathologic features. awareness about this rhabdomyosarcoma variant and careful immunophenotypical evaluation are necessary to establish the correct diagnosis. Although no specific genetic aberrations have been recognized, yet the cytogenetic findings in 2 tumors of this series suggest a link with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. It is likely that further genotyping will result in better nosologic delineation of sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma and that it will uncover pathogenetically and prognostically relevant genes.
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ranking = 1.8333333333333
keywords = rhabdomyosarcoma
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