Cases reported "Scoliosis"

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1/219. Surgical treatment of poliomyelitic scoliosis.

    Between 1968 and 1973 forty nine patients suffering from poliomyelitic scoliosis were treated surgically at the Rizzoli Institute. They were due to asymmetrical paralysis and contracture in the muscles of the trunk and limbs. Associated pathological conditions were found, such as pelvic obliquity, and vascular and trophic changes due to ganglionic lesions. The differing incidence and combination of these factors gave rise to various clinical types of spinal deformity. The average severity of curve was 39 degrees, the localisation was predominantly central, the average extent was ten vertebrae, and there was a marked predominance of right convexity (twenty nine out of thirty six). The rate of progression was maximum during puberty and almost negligible after bony maturity. It was greater in males and was unfavourably affected by the severity and asymmetrical distribution of the paralysis, by the early appearance of the disease, by high localisation of the deformity, and by the erect posture in patients who were ambulant. The most frequent visceral complications were in the respiratory system (ten patients with a deficit over 50%), followed by cardiac changes. Surgical treatment was adopted in patients with progressive curves over 60 degrees, because of the inevitable deterioration in their general condition and the tendency of the deformity to become fixed. Pre-operative correction by Halo-traction results (52% correction) than Risser plasters (38%). Posterior arthrodesis by Harrington's method was carried out in all the more recent cases (forty four). Post-operative plaster was maintained for eight months and then replaced by an orthopaedic corset. At bony maturity there was an averaged improvement of 35% in the angle of curvature, and an average improvement of 6% in vital capacity. The best corrections were obtained in patients under fourteen (42%), in dorso-lumbar scoliosis (40%) and in patients with curves above 100 degrees (38%). There was an average increase in height of 9.1 cms and a reduction in the gibbus of 3.4 cms. The complications included one traumatic pneumothorax, eight pseudarthroses, and breakage of the distraction rod in two cases resulting in complete relapse of the deformity. In six cases the upper hooks became loos and there were two cases of postoperative staphylococcal infection. In the distally sited curves our present policy is towards combining posterior arthrodesis with Dwyer's anterior interbody fusion.
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2/219. scoliosis secondary to cerebrocosto-mandibular syndrome. A case report with surgical management.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report of scoliosis secondary to cerebrocosto-mandibular syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To bring about awareness of the scoliosis and respiratory problems associated with this rare syndrome. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Of the approximately 50 cases of this syndrome previously reported, only 3 involved scoliosis, and only 1 of these required surgery (but the patient expired). methods: A retrospective chart was made, and a radiologic review were done. RESULTS: A successful surgical outcome was achieved, despite severe preoperative curvature (112 degrees scoliosis) and diminished pulmonary function (21% vital capacity). CONCLUSION: This syndrome can be associated with progressive scoliosis but can be managed successfully with surgery.
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3/219. A King type II curve pattern treated with selective thoracic fusion: case report with 44-year follow-up.

    The optimal surgical treatment of the King-Moe type II thoracic curve pattern is controversial. The issue of postoperative "decompensation" has arisen in conjunction with the use of third-generation instrumentation systems. This report presents the 44-year clinical and radiographic follow-up of a patient with a type II scoliosis treated with uninstrumented selective thoracic fusion using the criteria of King and Moe. The caudal extent of the fusion was defined by proper identification of the neutral and stable vertebra. At final follow-up, the patient remained well balanced and essentially pain free. Her level of function was "above average" for her age, as per SF-36 evaluation.
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4/219. Anaesthetic implications of rigid spine syndrome.

    The perioperative management of a 14-year-old girl, suffering from the muscular disorder rigid spine syndrome, is presented. The anaesthetic implications with regard to possible difficult intubation, cardiac involvement, malignant hyperthermia, neuromuscular blocking agents, and postoperative recovery are discussed.
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5/219. A case of ventricular fibrillation in the prone position during back stabilisation surgery in a boy with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy.

    A 15-year-old boy with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy experienced prolonged cardiac arrest whilst in the prone position for spinal surgery. He was successfully resuscitated without apparent neurological sequelae by internal cardiac massage via a thoracotomy and external and internal direct current cardioversion. Recommendations are suggested for the pre- and peroperative management of such cases.
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6/219. Efficacy of intraoperative monitoring for pediatric patients with spinal cord pathology undergoing spinal deformity surgery.

    STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study of 38 pediatric patients with spinal cord pathology who underwent corrective spinal deformity surgery from January 1989 through June 1998. OBJECTIVES: To report reliability and specificity in obtaining intraoperative data in this population. These data were compared with monitoring results obtained in a group of pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Reports in the literature suggest intraoperative monitoring for patients with spinal cord pathology may be of limited value. No optimal monitoring protocol has been suggested for this population. methods: The study group consisted of 38 pediatric patients with a diagnosis of spinal cord pathology who underwent corrective spinal deformity surgery from January 1989 through June 1998. All patients had lower extremity function. Somatosensory and neurogenic motor evoked potentials were used to monitor neurologic status during surgery. These data were compared with data obtained in 429 pediatric patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Study patients were divided into Group I, those who had had spinal cord surgery (n = 20), and Group II, those who had not (n = 18). RESULTS: Somatosensory evoked potentials were obtained in 93.2% and remained consistent with baselines in 87.2% of the study group patients. Neurogenic motor evoked potentials were obtained in 50.8% of the study subjects and remained consistent in 76.6% of those cases. The false-positive rate was 27.1% in the study group, compared with 1.4% in the group with idiopathic scoliosis. The study group had no true-positive or false-negative findings. Group I data differed from Group II data. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative monitoring should be used in patients with spinal cord pathology who undergo surgery for spinal deformity. Monitoring should not miss a neurologic deficit but demonstrates greater variability, resulting in more frequent use of an intraoperative wake-up test.
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7/219. Halo femoral traction and sliding rods in the treatment of a neurologically compromised congenital scoliosis: technique.

    In severe congenital scoliosis, traction (whether with a halo or instrumental) is known to expose patients to neurologic complications. However, patients with restrictive lung disease may benefit from halo traction during the course of the surgical treatment. The goal of treatment of such deformities is, therefore, twofold: improvement of the respiratory function and avoidance of any neurologic complications. We report our technique to treat a 17-year-old girl with a multi-operated congenital scoliosis of 145 degrees and cor pulmonale. Pre-operative halo gravity traction improved her vital capacity from 560 c.c. to 700 c.c., but led to mild neurologic symptoms (clonus in the legs). To avoid further neurologic compromise, her first surgery consisted of posterior osteotomies and the implantation of two sliding rods connected to loose dominoes without any attempt at correction. Correction was then achieved over a 3-week period with a halofemoral traction. This allowed the two rods to slide while the neurologic status of the patient was monitored. Her definitive surgery consisted of locking the dominoes and the application of a contralateral rod. Satisfactory outcome was achieved for both correction of the deformity (without neurologic sequels) and improvement of her pulmonary function (1200 c.c. at 2 years). This technique using sliding rods in combination with halofemoral traction can be useful in high-risk, very severe congenital scoliosis.
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8/219. cauda equina compression due to a laminar hook: A late complication of posterior instrumentation in scoliosis surgery.

    Whilst neurologic injury following correction of scoliosis with CD-instrumentation is generally known to be an early complication, any late occurrence of cauda compression secondary to employment of a laminar hook-rod construct is exceptional. We report on such a rare case of late occurrence of cauda equina syndrome, when a laminar hook at level L2 became symptomatic causing compression of the cauda equina almost a decade after spine surgery. This case demonstrates that one should not only be aware of a potential neural injury at intraoperative placement of laminar hooks, but also one is reminded that a laminar hook poses the threat of late neurologic injury years after successful osseous spinal fusion. The surgeon treating patients with scoliosis must be aware of the possible complication described in our patient in addition to those that have already been well documented.
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9/219. The halo-Milwaukee brace. Case series of a revived technique.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case series in which the halo-Milwaukee brace was used for postoperative immobilization in children with complex congenital and developmental spinal deformities. OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of halo-Milwaukee orthosis in a pediatric population for stabilization of the cervical and upper thoracic spine. SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: Postoperative immobilization of the neck and upper thorax can be achieved with cervical orthoses, cervicothoracic lumbar orthosis, halo cast, Minerva jacket, or halo vest. In the young child or in individuals with severe deformities, prefabricated braces often do not provide adequate stability or predictable fit. The halo-Milwaukee brace has proven to be an effective and versatile technique in the management of complex pediatric spinal deformities. methods: Halo-Milwaukee brace immobilization was used in 12 patients after surgical stabilization of the upper thoracic or cervical spine. Technique and indications are discussed in this report. Surgical outcomes and complications were reviewed retrospectively in all cases. RESULTS: Application of the halo-Milwaukee brace was a clinically effective and safe means of controlling the upper thoracic and cervical spine. The orthosis was well tolerated and allowed access to the posterior incision. The brace is easily converted to a standard Milwaukee brace with neck ring. The pelvic segment of the brace is molded before surgery, and in most instances did not require postoperative modification. CONCLUSION: The halo-Milwaukee brace is a simple and convenient method of intraoperative and postoperative immobilization. The technique is applicable in patients who cannot be treated with more conventional off-the-shelf orthoses. The brace was well tolerated and allowed for early patient mobilization.
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10/219. Reversible ischemic myelopathy during scoliosis surgery: a possible role for intravenous lidocaine.

    An unusual and previously unreported case of partially reversible ischemic myelopathy after limited unilateral segmental vessel ligation during scoliosis surgery is described. Intravenous lidocaine, used intraoperatively for its vasoactive properties, induced an immediate and meaningful recovery of neurologic function. The conceptual and pharmacologic basis for this intervention is discussed in view of this exceedingly rare complication of segmental vessel ligation.
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