Cases reported "Scrapie"

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1/3. Cerebellar plaques in familial Alzheimer's disease (Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker variant?).

    A large kindred, with two brothers coming to autopsy, of a syndrome consisting of ataxia, dementia, and some Parkinsonian features is reported; inheritance appears to be autosomal dominant. Neuropathologically, there were plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the cerebral cortex as well as some in the basal ganglia, particularly reminiscent of the plaques seen in kuru; there was only minimal spinal cord disease (pyramidal tract field). The problems of classifying this condition--Alzheimer's disease with cerebellar involvement or other entities, such as the Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker condition (1936), especially now that transmission to animals in the latter has been reported--are discussed. Some relevant theoretical considerations derived from animal work, particularly in scrapie, are also reviewed.
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2/3. Alzheimer's disease and transmissible virus dementia (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).

    Ample justification exists on clinical, pathologic, and biologic grounds for considering a similar pathogenesis for AD and the spongiform virus encephalopathies. However, the crux of the comparison rests squarely on results of attempts to transmit AD to experimental animals, and these results have not as yet validated a common etiology. Investigations of the biologic similarities between AD and the spongiform virus encephalopathies proceed in several laboratories, and our own observation of inoculated animals will be continued in the hope that incubation periods for AD may be even longer than those of CJD.
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3/3. Induction of beta (A4)-amyloid in primates by injection of Alzheimer's disease brain homogenate. Comparison with transmission of spongiform encephalopathy.

    Amyloid plaques, associated with argyrophilic dystrophic neurites, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), but no neurofibrillary tangles, were found in the brains of three middle-aged marmoset monkeys that had been injected intracerebrally (ic) 6-7 yr earlier with brain tissue from a patient with early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Such changes were not found in the brains of three age-matched control marmosets. Immunochemically the amyloid plaques and CAA stained with antibody to beta (A4)-protein. The plaques and CAA displayed dichroic birefringence when stained with congo red and viewed under polarized light. beta (A4)-amyloid plaques and CAA were also found in the brain of one of two marmosets injected ic 6 yr previously with brain tissue from a patient with prion disease with concomitant beta (A4)-amyloid plaques and CAA. An occasional beta (A4)-amyloid plaque was found in the brains of two of four marmosets injected ic > 4.5 yr previously with brain tissue from three elderly patients, two of whom had suspected (but untransmitted) CJD. No beta (A4)-amyloid plaques or CAA were found in six marmosets who were older than the injected animals, in four marmosets that had not developed spongiform encephalopathy (SE) having been injected several years previously with human brain tissue from three younger patients with suspected or atypical prion disease, or in 10 younger marmosets who had undergone various neurosurgical procedures. Seventeen marmosets injected in the same way with brain tissue from patients or animals with SE developed SE 17-49 mo after injection. These results suggest that beta (A4)-amyloidosis is a transmissible process comparable to the transmissibility of SE.
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