Cases reported "Scrub Typhus"

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1/9. scrub typhus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome.

    A patient was admitted to our hospital with fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy and moderate anemia.The diagnosis of scrub typhus (tsutsugamushi disease) was established on specific serologic demonstration of antibodies to the cross-reacting proteins OX-K antigen and reaffirmed by successful treatment with doxycycline. The diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) was made on the cytologic findings of many histiocytes containing phagocytosed blood cells in the marrow aspirate. The hemophagocytosis phenomenon disappeared after the scrub typhus was successfully treated, thus suggesting the relationship between scrub typhus and hemophagocytosis. In a patient with rickettsial diseases including scrub typhus, associated with HPS, it is important to understand the relationship between the two disorders since the prognosis for HPS, if untreated, is very poor.
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2/9. Identification of the target cells of orientia tsutsugamushi in human cases of scrub typhus.

    orientia tsutsugamushi is the etiologic agent of scrub typhus, a chigger-borne zoonosis that is a highly prevalent, life-threatening illness of greatest public health importance in tropical asia and the islands of the western pacific ocean. The target cell of this bacterium is poorly defined in humans. In this study, O. tsutsugamushi were identified by immunohistochemistry using a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against O. tsutsugamushi Karp strain in paraffin-embedded archived autopsy tissues of three patients with clinical suspicion of scrub typhus who died during world war ii and the vietnam War. Rickettsiae were located in endothelial cells in all of the organs evaluated, namely heart, lung, brain, kidney, pancreas, and skin, and within cardiac muscle cells and in macrophages located in liver and spleen. Electron microscopy confirmed the location of rickettsiae in endothelium and cardiac myocytes.
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3/9. meningoencephalitis, myocarditis and disseminated intravascular coagulation in a patient with scrub typhus.

    A 21-year-old male soldier was admitted due to a sore throat, headache, generalized lymphadenopathy and persistent fever for 12 days. Despite empirical antibiotic treatment for four days at a clinic prior to admission, he continued to have persistent abdominal pain over his right upper quadrant region and progressive jaundice was followed by shock. After admission, he developed an episode of clonic seizures and became delirious and agitated. An electrocardiogram showed first degree atrioventricular (AV) block and non-specific ST-T wave changes. Hematological studies revealed thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, abnormal partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and a positive test for D-dimer. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed pleocytosis with white cells of 84/mm3 with a lymphocyte predominance, protein of 97 mg/dL and glucose of 79 mg/dL. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed a fourfold rise in antibodies to orientia tsutsugamushi in paired serum with IgM antibody titer of 1:640. The patient had a favorable response after parenteral chloramphenicol in addition to oral tetracycline. Early ricognition of scrub typhus and early prescription of anti-rickettsial agents prevent complications of central nervous system involvement and further deterioration of cardiac and hematological function.
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4/9. scrub typhus during pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature.

    scrub typhus is a rickettsial disease that is uncommon during pregnancy. We report a case of a 33-year-old woman, G1P0, 29 weeks pregnancy who presented to hospital with high fever, chill and headache for two weeks. Her diagnosis of scrub typhus was confirmed by serum immunofluorescent assay. She was successfully treated with chloramphenicol, but preterm delivery occurred. Her infant died from respiratory distress syndrome. No vertical transmission was demonstrated in this case. scrub typhus should be listed in the differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness in pregnant women, who either live in, or return from, endemic areas. chloramphenicol can be used safely during pregnancy if it is not circulating at the time of delivery.
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keywords = rickettsia
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5/9. scrub typhus: an imported Rickettsial disease.

    A case of scrub typhus due to Rickettsia tsutsugamushi is reported. This imported rickettsial disease was contracted by a 30-year-old woman while traveling in thailand, and was transmitted by an infected mite's bite. diagnosis was confirmed by specific serology and resolution was obtained by tetracycline therapy. Current concepts of the disease are reviewed.
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6/9. Atypical lymphocytes with a multilobated nucleus from a patient with tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus) in japan.

    A case of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus) with atypical lymphocytes with a multilobated nucleus is reported. Although this type of atypical lymphocyte has been reported in patients with viral infections such as adult T-cell leukemia, infectious mononucleosis, human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection, this is the first reported case of atypical lymphocyte with a multilobated nucleus in a patient with rickettsial infection. This type of atypical lymphocyte seems to exist in a broad spectrum of infectious diseases.
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7/9. Imported rickettsial disease: clinical and epidemiologic features.

    PURPOSE AND methods: The rickettsioses continue to constitute major health problems in many parts of the world. With increasing international travel, recognition of rickettsial diseases by physicians is becoming more important. The clinical features of four cases of rickettsial disease imported into canada over a five-year period are presented; two patients with tick typhus (rickettsia conorii), one patient with scrub typhus (R. tsutsugamushi), and one patient with murine typhus (R. typhi). We also present the North American data over the past 10 years from the Centers for disease Control (CDC) (Atlanta). RESULTS: Since 1983 in the united states, three cases of imported scrub typhus, all after travel to india, were confirmed, as well as six cases of murine typhus after travel to southeast asia. At the CDC, 67 imported cases of tick typhus have been confirmed by indirect fluorescent antibody test since 1976; most illnesses occurred after travel to africa. CONCLUSION: Rickettsial diseases are underrecognized by physicians, who should consider these diagnoses in travelers returning from endemic areas. Since effective treatment is available, prompt diagnosis and treatment are important. In all cases, specific serologic confirmation should be obtained.
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ranking = 6
keywords = rickettsia
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8/9. epidemiology and ecology of rickettsial diseases in the People's Republic of china.

    Since 1949, information on rickettsial diseases in the People's Republic of china has been virtually nonexistent in the West. This is the first comprehensive review of the ecology and epidemiology of Chinese rickettsial diseases to be published outside the People's Republic. At least five rickettsioses exist in china: scrub typhus, murine typhus, epidemic typhus, q fever, and one or more spotted fever-group (SFG) rickettsioses. Although epidemic typhus has been controlled and scrub typhus has abated in many areas, murine typhus, q fever, and SFG rickettsiosis are important public health problems. Serologic surveys indicate high prevalences of antibodies to coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, and SFG rickettsiae in some regions; these rickettsiae have been isolated from humans, arthropods, and animals. doxycycline has emerged as the best treatment for murine typhus, epidemic typhus, and scrub typhus. china offers both opportunities and challenges for the investigation and alleviation of the problems of rickettsial diseases.
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ranking = 9
keywords = rickettsia
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9/9. pregnancy with scrub typhus and vertical transmission: a case report.

    scrub typhus is a rickettsian disease which is seldom found in pregnancy. A 31-year-old, 34 weeks pregnant woman presented with fever, chill and cough for 6 weeks. Fetal jeopardy was found then a cesarean section was performed to deliver a 2,200 g male with hepatosplenomegaly. The mother's diagnosis was confirmed by positive Weil-Felix (OXK titer 1:320) and scrub typhus (titer 1:1600) tests. Vertical transmission was also demonstrated by a positive scrub typhus IgM in her child.
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