Cases reported "scrub typhus"

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1/54. scrub typhus in north queensland.

    scrub typhus was once common in north queensland, but no reports from this region have been published for nearly 30 years, and the focus has turned to cases from the northern territory and western australia. In 1996, diagnosis of scrub typhus in a queensland soldier led to recognition of an earlier outbreak with up to 17 cases. Another outbreak occurred a year later with 11 confirmed cases. All cases were in soldiers who had visited a training area near Innisfail. review of other laboratory diagnoses of scrub typhus shows it is still prevalent in north queensland, with several "hot spots". ( info)

2/54. An unusual site of chigger bite in a patient with scrub typhus.

    A 70-year-old female farmer was admitted to the hospital because of fever, headache, and diarrhea for 7 days. hypotension, right-sided pleural effusion with respiratory distress and leukocytosis were noted. She was initially treated as systemic bacterial infection by i.v. administration of ampicillin/sulbactam and amikacin. Because fever persisted in spite of aggressive treatment, a repeat thorough physical examination was done. An eschar was found over the left-sided labium majus and an enlarged lymph node was noted over the left inguinal region. Under the impression of scrub typhus, minocycline was administered. The patient's clinical condition improved dramatically within 3 days. The diagnosis was later confirmed by a serologic test for rickettsia tsutsugamushi. ( info)

3/54. pericarditis due to Tsutsugamushi disease.

    Tsutsugamushi disease is an acute febrile illness caused by rickettsia tsutsugamushi, which enters into the human bloodstream through the bite of leptotrombidium. It is characterized by eschar, fever and cutaneous rash. pericardial effusion in Tsutsugamushi disease is not a common manifestation, although a high rate of effusion was reported in autopsy in those who had died of the disease. Here, we report a case of Tsutsugamushi pericarditis documented by indirect immunofluorescent test of pericardial fluid, and give a brief review of the literature. ( info)

4/54. scrub typhus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome.

    A patient was admitted to our hospital with fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy and moderate anemia.The diagnosis of scrub typhus (tsutsugamushi disease) was established on specific serologic demonstration of antibodies to the cross-reacting proteins OX-K antigen and reaffirmed by successful treatment with doxycycline. The diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) was made on the cytologic findings of many histiocytes containing phagocytosed blood cells in the marrow aspirate. The hemophagocytosis phenomenon disappeared after the scrub typhus was successfully treated, thus suggesting the relationship between scrub typhus and hemophagocytosis. In a patient with rickettsial diseases including scrub typhus, associated with HPS, it is important to understand the relationship between the two disorders since the prognosis for HPS, if untreated, is very poor. ( info)

5/54. Acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with scrub typhus: diffuse alveolar damage without pulmonary vasculitis.

    Pathologic findings of scrub typhus have been characterized by vasculitis of the microvasculature of the involved organ resulting from a direct invasion by orientia tsutsugamushi. We experienced a case of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with scrub typhus. The case was proven by eschar and high titer of serum IgM antibody (positive at 1:1280). Open lung biopsy showed diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) in the organizing stage without evidence of vasculitis. Immunofluorescent antibody staining and polymerase chain reaction for O. tsutsugamushi failed to demonstrate the organism in the lung tissue. The patient expired due to progressive respiratory failure despite doxycycline therapy. Immunologic mechanism, without direct invasion of the organism, may participate in the pathogenesis of ARDS associated with scrub typhus. ( info)

6/54. multiple organ failure complicating probable scrub typhus.

    This report describes a case of life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome with multiple organ failure complicating probable scrub typhus. Favorable outcome was associated with fluoroquinolone therapy. scrub typhus should be suspected in travelers returning from Southeast asia presenting with unexplained respiratory manifestations. ( info)

7/54. scrub typhus encephalomyelitis with prominent focal neurologic signs.

    BACKGROUND: encephalomyelitis with prominent focal neurologic signs and associated neuroradiologic abnormalities has not been previously described in scrub typhus. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 22-year-old woman was admitted because of fever and an altered mental state. neurologic examination revealed bilateral sixth and seventh nerve palsies, bilateral gaze evoked nystagmus, anarthria, dysphagia, quadriparesis, and sensory level at T1. serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were positive for tsutsugamushi antibody. The patient's magnetic resonance images demonstrated the lesions responsible for the neurologic dysfunctions: in the lower brainstem, cerebellar peduncles, and spinal cord. It was interesting that the gray matter of the spinal cord was predominantly involved. CONCLUSIONS: The recognition of unusual manifestations and the clinical suspicion of this treatment-responsive disease may be important, particularly in the face of increasing international and intranational travel. ( info)

8/54. Branch retinal vein occlusion in the right eye and retinal hemorrhage in the left in a patient with classical Tsutsugamushi disease.

    PURPOSE: To report branch retinal vein occlusion and retinal hemorrhages associated with tsutsugamushi disease. methods: Case report of a 60-year-old woman who complained of fever, chills, headache, lymphadenopathy, and blurred vision in the right eye following an insect bite to the lower right forehead. RESULTS: Serological findings showed elevated titers for the strains of rickettsia tsutsugamushi. Ophthalmologic examination disclosed bilateral conjunctival injection, flame-shaped hemorrhage in her right fundus, and scattered hemorrhage in her left fundus. fluorescein angiography demonstrated dye leakage and dilation of capillaries. CONCLUSIONS: Branch retinal vein occlusion associated with classical tsutsugamushi disease, as demonstrated in our patient, may be rare. ( info)

9/54. scrub typhus pneumonitis acquired through the respiratory tract in a laboratory worker.

    We report a case of scrub typhus pneumonitis in a laboratory worker who apparently acquired it through the respiratory tract. The patient was suffering from fever, cough and dyspnea. He had both cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy, and hepatomegaly. A chest X-ray showed interstitial infiltrates. A diagnosis of scrub typhus was established upon isolation of orientia tsutsugamushi. 12 days before the patient showed symptoms, he had purified O. tsutsugamushi proteins from infected cells using an ultrasonication method which could generate aerosols containing O. tsutsugamushi. ( info)

10/54. Identification of the target cells of orientia tsutsugamushi in human cases of scrub typhus.

    orientia tsutsugamushi is the etiologic agent of scrub typhus, a chigger-borne zoonosis that is a highly prevalent, life-threatening illness of greatest public health importance in tropical asia and the islands of the western pacific ocean. The target cell of this bacterium is poorly defined in humans. In this study, O. tsutsugamushi were identified by immunohistochemistry using a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against O. tsutsugamushi Karp strain in paraffin-embedded archived autopsy tissues of three patients with clinical suspicion of scrub typhus who died during world war ii and the vietnam War. Rickettsiae were located in endothelial cells in all of the organs evaluated, namely heart, lung, brain, kidney, pancreas, and skin, and within cardiac muscle cells and in macrophages located in liver and spleen. Electron microscopy confirmed the location of rickettsiae in endothelium and cardiac myocytes. ( info)
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