Cases reported "Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms"

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1/10. A case of multiple sebaceous epithelioma: analysis of microsatellite instability.

    Sebaceous gland tumor is a rare disease that is a sign of muir-torre syndrome, an autosomal, dominantly inherited genodermatosis characterized by the presence of at least one sebaceous gland tumor and a minimum of one internal malignancy. Recent studies have indicated that defective dna mismatch repair occurs in muir-torre syndrome. Cutaneous lesions may occur before diagnosis of the internal cancer. We describe a 64-year-old male patient with multiple sebaceous epitheliomas with no evident internal malignancy. microsatellite instability, determined by examining dinucleotide CA repeats at the microsatellite loci, was observed in DNA from one sebaceous epithelioma but not from the other two sebaceous epitheliomas or from one basal cell epithelioma with sebaceous differentiation, suggesting that this condition is unlikely to be due to germ-line mutation of mismatch repair genes.
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ranking = 1
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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2/10. microsatellite instability and expression of hMLH-1 and hMSH-2 in sebaceous gland carcinomas as markers for muir-torre syndrome.

    Sebaceous gland carcinomas (SGCs) are rare malignant skin tumors occurring sporadically or as a phenotypic feature of the muir-torre syndrome (MTS). A subset of patients with MTS have a variant of the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome caused by mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes, which lead to microsatellite instability (MSI). We evaluated the value of MSI and loss of expression of the MMR genes, hMLH-1 and hMSH-2, as a marker to identify and distinguish MTS from sporadic SGC. Using a nationwide pathology report database system, we identified patients with the MTS phenotype. SGCs from 10 MTS patients and the colorectal carcinomas from 3 additional MTS patients were collected. In addition, SGCs from eight patients without a history of visceral neoplasm were collected. MSI was detected in 9 of 13 MTS-associated tumors (69%) versus 0 of 8 sporadic SGCs (P = 0.002). Except for the age of onset of colorectal carcinoma [58 years in the MSI-positive group versus 69.8 years in the MSI-negative group (P = 0.17)], no differences were seen between the MSI-negative and the MSI-positive MTS patients. Loss of expression of hMLH-1 (n = 4) or hMSH-2 (n = 4) was found in MSI-positive patients only. MSI and loss of expression of MMR genes can be used as markers for MTS in patients with SGC. Consequently, MSI and loss of MMR gene expression in a patient presenting with SGC as the initial malignancy have important consequences for the patient and family. There are at least two variants of MTS with different molecular genetic mechanisms because 31% of the patients with the MTS phenotype had no MSI.
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ranking = 0.24869531696731
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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3/10. Molecular pathologic analysis enhances the diagnosis and management of muir-torre syndrome and gives insight into its underlying molecular pathogenesis.

    The muir-torre syndrome (MTS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder, characterized by visceral malignancies and sebaceous skin lesions. In a subset of MTS families the disease is due to an underlying DNA mismatch-repair defect. We have identified a MTS family whose spectrum of reported neoplasia included adenocarcinomas of numerous gastrointestinal sites, carcinomas of the endometrium, ovary and breast, papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter, a range of cutaneous tumors, as well as keratoacanthomas. All tumors were tested for microsatellite instability and immunohistochemically stained for expression of MLH1 and MSH2 proteins. All tumors were found to be microsatellite unstable and lacking in MSH2 protein expression. The subsequent mutation detection focused on hMSH2, and a germline mutation was identified (CAA-->TAA, Gln-->STOP, codon 337). This mutation was subsequently found in a family member with a single skin lesion only. We propose that the combination of immunohistologic and microsatellite instability analysis can be exploited to screen individuals with characteristic skin lesions even before development of visceral tumors and to direct the subsequent germline mutation search. The profile of microsatellite instability and the genes rendered dysfunctional differed between tumor samples, suggesting that the molecular pathogenesis varied between lesions, despite a common germline mutation.
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ranking = 0.75190982647621
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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4/10. muir-torre syndrome: role of the dermatopathologist in diagnosis.

    muir-torre syndrome (MTS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder characterized by sebaceous lesions and visceral malignancies. The defect is thought to be the result of a mutation in mismatch repair genes and associated with microsatellite instability. Two cases whose diagnoses were suggested first by the dermatopathologist are discussed. The first is a 47-year-old white man who over the past 6 years developed multiple sebaceous lesions. Due to the number of sebaceous lesions and their morphology, the possible diagnosis of MTS was suggested by the dermatopathologist. Subsequently, a lesion in the right colon was found during colonoscopy that proved to be a poorly differentiated cecal adenocarcinoma. A pedigree analysis revealed other family members afflicted with multiple malignancies. genetic testing of the colonic adenocarcinoma showed microsatellite instability. The second patient is a 50-year-old white man who underwent biopsy of a skin lesion that showed features of both a sebaceous hyperplasia and sebaceous adenoma. Because of the mixed, unusual features of the lesion, the dermatopathologist suggested the diagnosis of MTS. It was later confirmed that the patient had a history of malignancies of the colon and kidney as well as a family history significant for multiple malignant neoplasms. These cases demonstrate the important role of the dermatopathologist in alerting the clinician to the possibility of muir-torre syndrome when the diagnosis of a sebaceous neoplasm is made, especially when unusual histologic features are observed.
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ranking = 0.49577691808522
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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5/10. Different phenotypes in muir-torre syndrome: clinical and biomolecular characterization in two Italian families.

    The muir-torre syndrome (MTS) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by the presence of sebaceous gland tumours, with or without keratoacanthomas, associated with visceral malignancies. We describe and characterize two families in which the ample phenotypic variability of MTS was evident. After clinical evaluation, the skin and visceral tumours of one member of a family with 'classic' MTS and one member of a family with a 'peculiar' MTS phenotype without sebaceous lesions, but with only multiple keratoacanthomas, were analysed for microsatellite instability (MSI) and by immunohistochemistry. Tumours of both individuals showed MSI, with a concomitant lack of MSH2 immunostaining in all evaluated skin and visceral lesions; moreover, in the proband of family 2 a constitutional mutation (C-->T substitution leading to a stop codon) in the MSH2 gene was identified. We conclude that the diagnosis of MTS, which is mainly clinical, should take into account an ample phenotypic variability, which includes both cases with typical cancer aggregation in families and cases characterized by the association of visceral malignancies with multiple keratoacanthomas (without sebaceous lesions), without an apparent family history of cancer.
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ranking = 0.24788845904261
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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6/10. Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis and muir-torre syndrome linked to compound biallelic constitutional MYH gene mutations.

    Attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis and muir-torre syndrome linked to compound biallelic constitutional MYH gene mutations.Peculiar dermatologic manifestations are present in several heritable gastrointestinal disorders. muir-torre syndrome (MTS) is a genodermatosis whose peculiar feature is the presence of sebaceous gland tumors associated with visceral malignancies. We describe one patient in whom multiple sebaceous gland tumors were associated with early onset colon and thyroid cancers and attenuated polyposis coli. Her family history was positive for colonic adenomas. She had a daughter presenting with yellow papules in the forehead region developed in the late infancy. skin and visceral neoplasms were tested for microsatellite instability and immunohistochemical status of mismatch repair (MMR), APC and MYH proteins. The proband colon and skin tumors were microsatellite stable and showed normal expression of MMR proteins. Cytoplasmic expression of MYH protein was revealed in colonic cancer cells. Compound heterozygosity due to biallelic mutations in MYH, R168H and 379delC, was identified in the proband. The 11-year-old daughter was carrier of the monoallelic constitutional mutation 379delC in the MYH gene; in the sister, the R168H MYH gene mutation was detected. This report presents an interesting case of association between MYH-associated polyposis and sebaceous gland tumors. These findings suggest that patients with MTS phenotype that include colonic polyposis should be screened for MYH gene mutations.
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ranking = 0.25613290839099
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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7/10. An illustrative case of muir-torre syndrome: contribution of immunohistochemical analysis in identifying indicator sebaceous lesions.

    BACKGROUND: muir-torre syndrome (MTS) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by the association of at least 1 cutaneous sebaceous tumor and 1 internal malignancy, often arising in the gastrointestinal tract. It is secondary to germline mutations in dna mismatch repair genes, mainly MLH-1 and MSH-2. OBSERVATIONS: We report the case of a 54-year-old man with a 2-year history of skin-colored papules clinically reminiscent of large sebaceous hyperplasias on the nose and back, but histologically diagnosed as sebaceous adenomas and epitheliomas. His family history was positive for colon cancer in the mother and 2 brothers. A colonoscopy done during the hospitalization revealed 2 sessile polyps in the left colon, both showing a low-grade dysplasia on the biopsy specimen. Immunohistochemical staining performed on the cutaneous and colic biopsy specimens revealed a lack of expression of MSH-2 and MSH-6. genetic testing revealed microsatellite instability in the colon and cutaneous tumors. CONCLUSION: The immunohistochemical testing for MSH-2, MSH-6, and MLH-1 is useful for rapid identification of an underlying mismatch repair defect and early diagnosis of MTS.
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ranking = 0.24788845904261
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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8/10. muir-torre syndrome: Diagnostic and screening guidelines.

    A 65-year-old man presented with a history of multiple skin coloured papules on his face that were asymptomatic. He had an adenocarcinoma resected from his proximal colon 12 years prior to presentation as well as a family history of colon cancer on the maternal side. Diagnostic biopsies showed the lesions to be sebaceous adenomas and epitheliomas and the diagnosis of muir-torre syndrome was made. The sebaceous tumour tissue showed microsatellite instability and immunohistochemical staining indicated diminished expression in the DNA mismatch-repair protein complex MSH2/MSH6. Genetic analysis showed a germline mutation in the MSH2 gene confirming the diagnosis of muir-torre syndrome. The patient and his first-degree relatives have been referred for genetic counselling and screening. We review the diagnostic criteria in this syndrome and review the recommended screening guidelines.
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ranking = 0.24788845904261
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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9/10. muir-torre syndrome: clinical features and molecular genetic analysis.

    We report a 62-year-old man with rectal cancer, two keratoacanthomas and multiple sebaceous adenomas, epitheliomas and sebaceous hyperplasia. His brother and father died from colorectal cancer. A subgroup of patients with the muir-torre syndrome (MTS) is allelic to the cancer family syndrome. This genetic disorder is caused by an autosomal dominant inherited germline mutation in one of the dna mismatch repair genes. It is thought that a somatic mutation of the other allele leads to a genomic instability responsible for tumorigenesis. In the patient presented here the instability was detected in two characteristic skin lesions; sebaceous adenoma and epithelioma. The search for a causal germline mutation revealed a frameshift mutation in the mismatch repair gene hMSH2 leading to a truncated protein. A presymptomatic molecular diagnosis can be offered to the children of the patient.
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ranking = 0.00040342896235158
keywords = instability
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10/10. The muir-torre syndrome in a black patient with AIDS: histopathology and molecular genetic studies.

    In 1981, a black man had adenocarcinoma of the colon. In 1986, he had a sebaceous adenoma and the diagnosis of the muir-torre syndrome was established. The patient was found to be hiv sero-positive in 1986, and 8 years later fulfilled the CDC criteria for AIDS. During 1989 to 1993 the CD4 count was > 200 cells/ml and the patient had 2 sebaceous tumors, 1 basal cell carcinoma and 1 keratoacanthoma. In 1994 to 1996, the CD4 count was < 200 cells/ml and the patient developed 18 sebaceous tumors and a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the finger which metastasized to axillary lymph nodes. Microsatellite analysis of tumor DNA from a sebaceous adenoma and adenocarcinoma of the finger revealed widespread microsatellite instability. The interaction of AIDS with the behavior of the tumors in the muir-torre syndrome has not previously been reported. Although our patient had an increase in the number of new sebaceous tumors at the same time he experienced deterioration of the immune system, he is doing well 15 years after resection of adenocarcinoma of the colon and 16 months after metastatic poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the skin. This follows the previously observed tendency for cancers of the muir-torre syndrome, especially those displaying widespread microsatellite instability, to be less lethal than their histologically similar counterparts in people without muir-torre syndrome.
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ranking = 0.49577691808522
keywords = microsatellite instability, microsatellite, instability
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