Cases reported "Seizures"

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1/1356. Transient paralytic attacks of obscure nature: the question of non-convulsive seizure paralysis.

    Eleven patients with transient paralytic attacks of obscure nature are described. paralysis could involve face or leg alone, face and hand, or face, arm and leg. The duration varied from two minutes to one day. Four patients had brain tumors, six probably had brain infarcts, and one a degenerative process. The differential diagnosis included TIAs, migraine accompaniments, and seizures. In the absence of good evidence for the first two, the cases are discussed from the standpoint of possibly representing nonconvulsive seizure paralysis (ictal paralysis, inhibitory seizure paralysis or somatic inhibitory seizure). Because of the difficulty in defining seizures as well as TIAs and migraine in their atypical variations, a firm conclusion concerning the mechanisms of the spells was not attained. Two cases of the hypertensive amaurosis-seizure syndrome have been added as further examples of ictal deficits.
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ranking = 1
keywords = non-convulsive
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2/1356. Extrapontine myelinolysis in a nine-year-old child.

    Extrapontine myelinolysis in the pediatric age group is very rare. We report a nine-year-old girl with the classical clinical syndrome of pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis following liver trauma due to a traffic accident. She was referred to our hospital for further investigation of convulsions due to severe postoperative hyponatremia. She had no hypoxic event or other identifiable cause for the neurological symptoms. Neurological deterioration began about two days after correction of hyponatremia and followed a period of temporary improvement in hyponatremic encephalopathy. diagnosis of extrapontine myelinolysis was confirmed with the identification of typical features on magnetic resonance imaging. The rapid correction of hyponatremia seemed the most likely cause since other biochemical tests including liver function tests were all within normal ranges. The long term clinical outcome was good. It is important to carefully monitor the rate of correction in electrolyte disturbances, and to consider the individual variation in response to therapy.
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ranking = 0.036883670899789
keywords = mal
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3/1356. stroke and seizures as the presenting signs of pediatric hiv infection.

    The authors report two pediatric patients with definite human immunodeficiency virus infection whose initial presentation was stroke and seizure. The first patient was a 3-year-old female who developed acute hemiparesis as the first manifestation. The other, a 2-month-old infant, had focal seizures secondary to cerebral infarction. Investigations revealed ischemic infarction of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and internal capsule in the first patient and cerebral cortex in the second. Further investigations failed to demonstrate any other causes of these cerebral infarctions. Opportunistic infection of the central nervous system was not documented. The authors emphasize that cerebrovascular accident may be the initial presentation in human immunodeficiency virus infection in children. Human immunodeficiency virus infection must be included in the differential diagnosis, and testing for the disease is mandatory in the investigation of stroke in any child who is at risk of having this infection.
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ranking = 0.036883670899789
keywords = mal
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4/1356. seizures induced by frustration and despair due to unresolved moral and political issues: a rare case of reflex epilepsy.

    We present a case of reflex-induced simple partial seizures, triggered by feelings of frustration, anger and despair. Such emotions were provoked by pondering over complex national and international, political and moral issues. The present case may suggest that activation of right temporal networks may mediate negative and adverse emotions induced by preoccupation with agitating, controversial issues.
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ranking = 0.00080650608081599
keywords = complex, simple
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5/1356. Kenny-Caffey syndrome: an Arab variant?

    We describe 2 unrelated Bedouin girls who met the criteria for the diagnosis of Kenny-Caffey syndrome. The girls had some unusual features--microcephaly and psychomotor retardation--that distinguish the Kenny-Caffey syndrome profile in Arab children from the classical Kenny-Caffey syndrome phenotype characterized by macrocephaly and normal intelligence. The 2 girls did not harbor the 22q11 microdeletion (the hallmark of the DiGeorge cluster of diseases) that we previously reported in another Bedouin family with the Kenny-Caffey syndrome (Sabry et al. J Med Genet 1998: 35(1): 31-36). This indicates considerable genetic heterogeneity for this syndrome. We also review previously reported 44 Arab/Bedouin patients with the same profile of hypoparathyroidism, short stature, seizures, mental retardation and microcephaly. Our results suggest that these patients represent an Arab variant of Kenny-Caffey syndrome with characteristic microcephaly and psychomotor retardation. We suggest that all patients with Kenny-Caffey syndrome should be investigated for the 22q11 microdeletion. Other possible genetic causes for the Kenny-Caffey syndrome or its Arab variant include chromosome 10p abnormalities.
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ranking = 0.073767341799578
keywords = mal
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6/1356. Anatomical and embryological considerations in the repair of a large vertex cephalocele. Case report.

    The case of a neonate with a large vertex cephalocele is presented. The anatomical features of this anomaly were evaluated by means of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography. Fusion of the thalami, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, and failure of adequate formation of the interhemispheric fissure were characteristics of the major cerebral anomalies associated with the cephalocele. The absence of a falx in the midline, a split configuration of the superior sagittal sinus, and a dysgenetic tentorium with a concomitant abnormal venous drainage pattern were found in association with a large dorsal cyst. Repair of the anomaly was undertaken on the 3rd postnatal day. A cerebrospinal fluid shunt was required to treat hydrocephalus on Day 30. The child is well at age 3 years, but with significant developmental delay. The pathogenesis of this vertex cephalocele relates to semilobar holoprosencephaly and dorsal cyst formation. In addition, a disturbance in the separation of the diencephalic portion of the neural tube from the surface ectoderm or skin during the final phases of neurulation had occurred to help create the large cephalocele. Detailed preoperative imaging studies and awareness of the embryology and anatomy of this lesion facilitated the repair of the cephalocele. The prognosis of the child is determined not only by the presence of hydrocephalus, but also by the number of associated major cerebral anomalies. Options for treatment are discussed.
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ranking = 0.18441835449895
keywords = mal
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7/1356. Continuous EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit: early findings and clinical efficacy.

    The assessment of the neurocritical care patient involves serial assessment of neurologic status using bedside clinical examination and a variety of periodic neurophysiologic testing. Continuous electroencephalographic (CEEG) monitoring in the intensive care unit offers a unique means to track neurologic function directly and regionally. CEEG is becoming more widespread with a growing but small body of literature. The purpose of this paper is to outline the current experience with intensive care unit CEEG monitoring. The basic methods and caveats are discussed. We review the underlying rationale for using CEEG which is that secondary neurologic injury commonly occurs in the intensive care unit and at times is hard to detect. CEEG has a proven role in detecting secondary injuries, namely seizures and brain ischemia. The basic tenets of establishing clinical effectiveness for CEEG in the ICU are discussed while acknowledging a need for further study of clinical effectiveness. We review our initial clinical experience of CEEG in 300 patients and outline the clinical efficacy in terms of cost reduction and improvement in outcome (P < 0.01) using CEEG. Finally, several controversial aspects of CEEG are enumerated, and the need for additional study to answer these pressing questions is presented.
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ranking = 0.14205786634586
keywords = status, mal
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8/1356. A family with an atonic variant of paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis and hypercalcitoninemia.

    We report a family with an incompletely atonic variant of paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis (PKC). Three members of the family experienced attacks of muscle weakness which resembled the choreoathetotic attacks that occur in PKC in terms of their kinesigenicity and duration, clarity of consciousness during the attacks, good therapeutic response to low doses of phenytoin, and familial transmission, but differed from choreoathetotic attacks in PKC in that they were atonic. All three affected individuals were hypercalcitoninemic.
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ranking = 0.18441835449895
keywords = mal
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9/1356. Behenoyl cytarabine-associated reversible encephalopathy in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia.

    We report a case of reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a 16-year-old girl with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), who is undergoing during consolidation chemotherapy composed of BH-AC (N4-behenoyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl cytosine) and idarubicin. On the 6th day of chemotherapy, she was in a drowsy state following generalized tonic clonic seizure lasting 20 minutes. MR images revealed extensive cortical and subcortical white matter brain edema. Alertness returned over the 24 hr following by the discontinuation of BH-AC and intravenous administration of diphenylhydantoin, although she complained of intermittent headaches and visual disturbance. She gradually recovered from these symptoms during subsequent 7 days. Previously noted abnormal signal intensities have nearly disappreared on follow-up MRI obtained on the 22nd day after the first seizure. She was discharged without any neurologic sequela. This case suggests that BH-AC, a derivative of cytosine arabinoside (1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine) could be a cause of reversible encephalopathy syndrome.
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ranking = 0.036883670899789
keywords = mal
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10/1356. Symptomatic hypoglycemia in otherwise healthy, breastfed term newborns.

    Transient symptomatic neonatal hypoglycemia, a diagnosis that is made in the neonatal nursery, is not usually associated with apparently normal infants who have been discharged from hospital. We describe 3 such cases that presented at home on day 3 of life with seizures or life-threatening apneas. We postulate that early discharge of apparently normal infants with marginal nutritional or metabolic adaptation, may expose some infants to postdischarge (but still neonatal) hypoglycemia and its attendant risks.
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ranking = 0.073767341799578
keywords = mal
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