Cases reported "Seizures"

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11/88. Case report: primary human herpesvirus-6 associated with an afebrile seizure in a 3-week-old infant.

    We describe a 3-week-old male infant with an afebrile seizure in whom serologic and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) findings support concomitant primary human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection. Although HHV-6 infection has been associated with first-time febrile seizures and encephalitis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, it has not been associated previously with afebrile seizures in healthy infants. This report provides additional evidence of the neuropathogenic potential of HHV-6.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis, herpes
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12/88. Listeria meningoencephalitis: two cases and a review of the literature.

    INTRODUCTION: Although presently uncommon locally, Listeria is increasing an important cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection worldwide. It differs from the common meningitis pathogens in its clinical features and treatment. CLINICAL PICTURE: We present 2 recently encountered cases of Listeria meningoencephalitis. In case 1, a previously healthy 42-year-old man presented with clinical features of meningoencephalitis. In case 2, a 64-year-old woman had clinical features of pneumonia and meningoencephalitis. Both had a predominantly lymphocytic picture in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Listeria grew in blood cultures of both patients and the CSF culture of the first. TREATMENT: In both cases, Listeria was resistant to the empirical antibiotics used. Intravenous ampicillin was eventually used in both patients, with gentamicin, added for synergistic action in the first. OUTCOME: The first patient developed complications of hydrocephalus, subdural collection and extensive cerebritis and ventriculitis. The second patient had focal seizures and a pontine infarct. Both did not survive. CONCLUSION: These 2 recent cases with different presentations of intracranial listerosis highlight the increasing importance of listerial infections in singapore. Clinicians need to be familiar with the features of this lethal disease in order to recognize and manage it successfully.
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ranking = 7.0614432319257
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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13/88. Encephalitis related to primary varicella-zoster virus infection in immunocompetent children.

    INTRODUCTION: Encephalitis is a rare complication of primary varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection in immunocompetent children. methods: The clinical and laboratory findings of two girls with VZV-related encephalitis are reported. RESULTS: Both children presented with focal epileptic seizures, corresponding to cortical/subcortical as well as white matter lesions. The first showed a typical vesicular skin rash. She was easily diagnosed and made a rapid recovery during acyclovir and steroid treatment. In the second girl, a preceding measles-mumps-rubella virus vaccination and the absence of skin vesicles were misleading with respect to the diagnosis, which was finally proven by IgG seroconversion and intrathecal synthesis of IgG antibodies to VZV. She developed left parieto-occipital tissue necrosis and recovered only transiently during initial acyclovir/steroid treatment. Eight weeks after onset, progressive white matter demyelination and the occurrence of erythema nodosum in the lower limbs necessitated a second 4-month course of oral steroids. The VZV PCR from cerebrospinal fluid was negative in both children. CONCLUSIONS: Primary VZV infection may cause severe encephalitis that may occur without skin vesicles and lead to a chronic course with systemic vasculitis. The coincidence of vaccination and neurologic diseases offers no proof per se of a causal relationship.
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ranking = 1.9781157996472
keywords = encephalitis
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14/88. Fatal meningitis and encephalitis due to bartonella henselae bacteria.

    Bacterial infection due to bartonella henselae commonly develops in children and young adults following cat/dog contacts and/or cat/dog scratches. Regional lymphadenopathy is its most common clinical expression. However, encephalitis and Parinaud's syndrome (oculoglandular syndrome) have also been reported as has systemic illness. A review of the international literature in all languages revealed no fatal complications in immunocompetent hosts. A four-year-old white child with no underlying illness began to have seizure-like activity. She was taken to a local hospital and subsequently transferred to a medical center. The child was treated aggressively for seizures and fever of unknown origin. However, her condition rapidly declined and she died without a specific diagnosis. At autopsy there was marked cerebral edema with no gross evidence of acute meningitis. Microscopic exams revealed multiple granulomatous lesions as well as a meningitis and encephalitis. A variety of cultures and stains were negative for acid fast and fungal organisms. Warthin-Starry stains of involved tissue including brain and liver revealed pleomorphic rod shaped bacilli consistent with Barronella henselae. Analysis of brain tissue with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot for the deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) was definitive for dna of bartonella henselae bacteria.
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ranking = 5.9343473989415
keywords = encephalitis
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15/88. Posterior leukoencephalopathy in a girl with acute haemorrhagic leukoencephalitis.

    In children, posterior leukoencephalopathy is frequently associated with hypertensive encephalopathy, anticancer chemotherapy, treatment with immunosuppressive drugs in patients with organ transplantation, transfusion or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Posterior leukoencephalopathy in these children appears as a complicating illness and resolves once precipitating factor (e.g. cancer chemotherapy) is removed. Here we are reporting a fatal case of acute haemorrhatic leukoencephalitis in a 13 year old girl, imaging abnormalities are also suggestive of posterior leukoencephalopathy. Posterior leukoencephalopathy in our patient possibly, is a part of post-infectious haemorrhagic leukoencephalitis, rather than because of ischaemia or cerebral oedema secondary either to abrupt increase in blood pressure or following administration of immunosuppressive drugs.
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ranking = 5.9343473989415
keywords = encephalitis
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16/88. Frequent seizures with elevated interleukin-6 at the eruptive stage of exanthema subitum.

    A 15-month-old girl developed frequent seizures at the eruptive stage of exanthema subitum. The eruption persisted for 2 weeks. serum immunoglobulin g antibody to human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6) increased markedly. interleukin-6 was elevated whereas HHV-6 deoxyribonucleic acid was not detected in cerebrospinal fluid. These findings suggest that immune-mediated reactions after HHV-6 infection rather than direct action of active HHV-6 are responsible for frequent seizures in this case.
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ranking = 0.0021884200352827
keywords = herpes
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17/88. Generalized sharp and slow wave and electrodecremental seizure pattern in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Although subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) often presents with a characteristic EEG pattern, a 13-year-old boy with a confirmed diagnosis of SSPE had several EEG features that are unusual for this condition, namely, generalized sharp and slow wave (slow spike and wave) discharges during the waking record, an electrodecremental pattern associated with clinical seizures, and activation of the typical periodic complexes of SSPE only during sleep.
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ranking = 4.9452894991179
keywords = encephalitis
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18/88. CNS listeriosis confused with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in a patient with a malignant insulinoma.

    We describe a case of presumed listeria monocytogenes rhomboencephalitis, which was initially confused with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in a patient with a malignant carcinoid tumor. Long-term corticosteroid treatment and immunosuppression caused by malignancy predisposed the patient to developing listeriosis. The clinical and radiologic features of this illustrative case are described. listeriosis is an important treatable differential diagnosis in patients with malignancy presenting with neurologic signs.
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ranking = 0.98905789982359
keywords = encephalitis
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19/88. Hypercytokinemia in hemiconvulsions-hemiplegia syndrome associated with dual infection with varicella zoster and Epstein-Barr viruses.

    Hemiconvulsions-hemiplegia (HH) syndrome is an acquired condition in which hemiplegia develops after a preceding febrile unilateral status epilepticus in a previously healthy child. Although viral encephalitis or vascular diseases may be the underlying etiology, the pathogenesis remains unknown in the majority of cases. We measured both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels in a girl with HH syndrome, and found elevated plasma concentrations of soluble interleukin-2 receptor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and a slightly increased plasma level of interleukin-6. Furthermore, she had a high serum concentration of soluble e-selectin, which is a marker of inflammatory endothelial activation. These findings suggest that proinflammatory cytokine-induced cerebrovascular endothelial injury could play a role in the pathogenesis of HH syndrome.
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ranking = 0.98905789982359
keywords = encephalitis
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20/88. Unusual neurological presentation of neuroblastoma.

    Acute cerebellar ataxia and opsomyoclonus are presenting signs of occult neuroblastoma for a substantial proportion of paediatric patients. cerebellar ataxia may be due to antibodies against the neuroblastoma cross-reacting with cerebellar tissue. This report is of a 26-month-old boy who presented with encephalitis-like features of ataxia, seizures, decreased consciousness, and involuntary movements. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine were normal 2 weeks after presentation. The child did not have the classical signs of opsoclonus or myoclonus at any stage of the disease but was found to have occult neuroblastoma. The late demyelinating changes seen on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain support an immunological basis for the paraneoplastic manifestations of occult neuroblastoma in this child. Occult neuroblastoma should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses for children presenting with persisting encephalitis-like features in the presence of normal neuroimaging findings.
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ranking = 1.9781157996472
keywords = encephalitis
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