Cases reported "Seizures"

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1/145. stroke and seizures as the presenting signs of pediatric hiv infection.

    The authors report two pediatric patients with definite human immunodeficiency virus infection whose initial presentation was stroke and seizure. The first patient was a 3-year-old female who developed acute hemiparesis as the first manifestation. The other, a 2-month-old infant, had focal seizures secondary to cerebral infarction. Investigations revealed ischemic infarction of the thalamus, hypothalamus, and internal capsule in the first patient and cerebral cortex in the second. Further investigations failed to demonstrate any other causes of these cerebral infarctions. Opportunistic infection of the central nervous system was not documented. The authors emphasize that cerebrovascular accident may be the initial presentation in human immunodeficiency virus infection in children. Human immunodeficiency virus infection must be included in the differential diagnosis, and testing for the disease is mandatory in the investigation of stroke in any child who is at risk of having this infection.
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2/145. Interictal change in cardiac autonomic function associated with EEG abnormalities and clinical symptoms: a longitudinal study following acute deterioration in two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ictal and interictal changes in cardiac autonomic function (CAF), and the relationship between the interictal change in CAF to the electroencephalogram (EEG) and clinical findings. In two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) showing acute deterioration, a quantitative evaluation of their interictal CAF based on heart rate variability and their EEG using spectral analysis was conducted, and the findings compared with repeated clinical evaluations during the recovery period. The ictal heart rate changes and their temporal relationship to ictal discharge were investigated using simultaneous EEG/electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring in one of the patients. Interictal parasympathetic function was decreased during the period of acute deterioration, but was increased in association with improvements in the EEG and clinical findings. In contrast, the sympathetic function showed no specific changes. The ictal discharges were preceded by a brief bradycardia, with a long delay of up to 40s. The results demonstrated that this decrease in parasympathetic function was closely related to the interictal changes in central nervous system function. On the other hand, the ictal discharges in one of the patients were thought to have caused a transient elevation of parasympathetic function. It is strongly suggested that patients with TLE have interictal as well as ictal changes in CAF that are mediated mainly through the parasympathetic nervous system.
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keywords = nervous system
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3/145. Genetic factors in human sleep disorders with special reference to Norrie disease, prader-willi syndrome and Moebius syndrome.

    Sleep-wake problems are common in specific inborn errors of metabolism and structure of the central nervous system. Psychological factors, behavioural difficulties, metabolic disturbances, and widespread rather than focal damage to the nervous system are present in many of these diseases and all influence the sleep-wake cycle. However, a number of conditions cause relatively focal damage to the neuroanatomical substrate of sleeping and waking. These include fatal familial insomnia, with involvement of the prion protein gene on chromosome 20, Norrie disease, the prader-willi syndrome and the Moebius syndrome. The last three important conditions, although rare, are considered in detail in this review. They result in sensory deprivation, hypothalamic and mid-brain damage, and involve the X-chromosome, chromosome 15, and chromosome 13, respectively. These conditions cause a wide variety of sleep disturbance, including parasomnias, daytime sleepiness, and a condition like cataplexy. The place of the relevant gene products in normal sleep regulation needs further exploration.
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keywords = nervous system
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4/145. cleidocranial dysplasia with neonatal death due to central nervous system injury in utero: case report and literature review.

    cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), an uncommon disorder involving membranous bones, is rarely lethal in early life. The calvaria is defective and wormian bones are present. Abnormalities of the clavicles vary in severity from a minor unilateral defect to bilateral absence. This report concerns pre- and postmortem anatomical and radiological findings in a 15-day-old female neonate with CCD. Her postnatal course was characterized by seizures and recognition of hydrocephalus during the first day of life. The calvaria was hypoplastic with numerous wormian bones. A pseudofracture of the right clavicle was present. hydrocephalus was present in the brachycephalic brain which had a severely thinned cerebral cortex. hemosiderin in the ventricular lining and marked subependymal gliosis were interpreted as evidence of old intraventricular hemorrhage that had occurred in utero. A CCD-related condition, Yunis-Varon syndrome (YVS), is noted for early lethality and for developmental and secondary abnormalities of the central nervous system. The present case only partially matches the phenotype of YVS and might represent a part of a spectrum of phenotypic variants ranging from viable CCD to lethal YVS.
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keywords = nervous system
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5/145. hiv infection and seizures.

    New-onset seizures are frequent manifestations of central nervous system disorders in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). seizures are more common in advanced stages of the disease, although they may occur early in the course of illness. In the majority of patients, seizures are of the generalised type. status epilepticus is also frequent. Associated metabolic abnormalities increase the risk for status epilepticus. Cerebral mass lesions, cryptococcal meningitis, and hiv-encephalopathy are common causes of seizures. phenytoin is the most commonly prescribed anticonvulsant in this situation, although several patients may experience hypersensitivity reactions. The prognosis of seizure disorders in hiv-infected patients depends upon the underlying cause.
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keywords = nervous system
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6/145. Acute encephalopathy and intractable seizures in a 10-year-old boy.

    We report a 10-year-old child with Robinow's syndrome who had a 2-week history of headaches and dizziness. On the day of admission, he developed a focal onset seizure with rapid secondary generalization. The seizures were intractable despite adequate doses of benzodiazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital, requiring a pentobarbital drip. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring showed persistence of the epileptiform discharges for 13 days. cerebrospinal fluid and brain biopsy studies were unrevealing. Mycoplasma pneumonia titers showed elevation of both immunoglobulins G and M that doubled during the tenth hospital day. High-dose methylprednisolone was begun, and within 12 hours of initiation the patient sat up and began to follow commands appropriately. The overall EEG background markedly improved. central nervous system mycoplasma pneumoniae infection should be suspected in patients with an encephalopathy of unclear etiology.
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7/145. Acute intermittent porphyria with central pontine myelinolysis and cortical laminar necrosis.

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal-dominant disease caused by a deficiency of porphobilinogen (PBG) deaminase. patients with AIP present with neurological syndromes such as autonomic neuropathy, peripheral axonal neuropathy or central nervous system dysfunction. We report serial MRI of a patient with AIP who had cortical and subcortical cerebral changes. A 29-year-old woman with a 6-month history of AIP had an attack with severe hyponatraemia and generalised convulsions, treated with haem arginate and supportive therapy. MRI showed central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis and cortical laminar necrosis. These are not common in AIP, but are likely to have been caused by rapid correction of hyponatraemia and by vasospasm, which could be induced by AIP.
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keywords = nervous system
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8/145. Hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome: neurologic features.

    Hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES) is a severe disease that affects previously healthy infants of less than 1 year of age and is associated with significant mortality and neurologic morbidity. It is characterized by sudden onset of shock, convulsions and coma, bleeding due to severe coagulopathy, fever, diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, and hepatorenal dysfunction. central nervous system involvement with recurrent seizures and brain edema is the most common cause of high mortality and neurological morbidity. In this report, we describe four patients of HSES and review the initial and follow-up neurological features, electroencephalography findings, and the results of neuroradiological examinations of this catastrophic illness.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nervous system
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9/145. central nervous system paracoccidioidomycosis. Report of a case successfully treated with itraconazol.

    paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a primary pulmonary infection that often disseminates to other organs and systems. Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is rare and due to the fact that both clinical alertness and establishment of the diagnosis are delayed, the disease progresses causing serious problems. We report here a case of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM), observed in a 55 year-old male, who consulted due to neurological symptoms (left hemiparesis, paresthesias, right palpebral ptosis, headache, vomiting and tonic clonic seizures) of a month duration. Upon physical examination, an ulcerated granulomatous lesion was observed in the abdomen. To confirm the diagnosis a stereotactic biopsy was taken; additionally, mycological tests from the ulcerated lesion and a bronchoalveolar lavage were performed. In the latter specimens, P. brasiliensis yeast cells were visualized and later on, the brain biopsy revealed the presence of the fungus. Treatment with itraconazole (ITZ) was initiated but clinical improvement was unremarkable; due to the fact that the patient was taking sodium valproate for seizure control, drug interactions were suspected and confirmed by absence of ITZ plasma levels. The latter medication was changed to clonazepam and after several weeks, clinical improvement began to be noticed and was accompanied by diminishing P. brasiliensis antigen and antibody titers. In the PCM endemic areas, CNS involvement should be considered more often and the efficacy of itraconazole therapy should also be taken into consideration.
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ranking = 5
keywords = nervous system
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10/145. Alatrofloxacin-induced seizures during slow intravenous infusion.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of seizures associated with slow infusion (1-2 h) of alatrofloxacin, the prodrug of trovafloxacin. CASE SUMMARY: A 37-year-old Asian man was admitted to the hospital for a distal pancreatectomy and drainage of a pseudocyst. postoperative complications developed, which included peritonitis and pneumonia, requiring intensive care admission. Cultures from peritoneal drainage fluid and sputum isolated klebsiella pneumoniae and pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. He was treated with multiple courses of antibiotics, including intravenous gentamicin, metronidazole, vancomycin, meropenem, and ceftazidime. After three weeks, the patient still had sepsis and began therapy with alatrofloxacin in addition to ceftazidime and vancomycin. Alatrofloxacin infusion was administered according to product information instructions. Fifteen minutes after the first dose was started, the patient developed generalized clonus. On rechallenge, infusing at half the initial rate, the seizure recurred; consequently, the infusion was discontinued and replaced with intravenous ciprofloxacin and metronidazole. The patient remained seizure free thereafter. DISCUSSION: fluoroquinolones have been implicated in central nervous system adverse effects, including seizures, which have been reported with other fluoroquinolones but not with alatrofloxacin or trovafloxacin. In these reports, the patients often had preexisting risk factors such as increased age and electrolyte imbalances. The only apparent predisposition in this patient was mild hyponatremia. CONCLUSIONS: Alatrofloxacin may cause seizures even during slow infusion. This case highlights the need for caution when commencing parenteral fluoroquinolone therapy, particularly with a new agent.
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keywords = nervous system
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