Cases reported "Seizures"

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1/19. Frightening dreams and spells: a case of ventricular asystole from lyme disease.

    We present a case of a 20-year-old woman who presented with a febrile illness, frightening dreams and repeated short episodes of apparent seizure activity. Third degree heart block and ventricular asystole were noted on the monitor when the patient experienced a spell during conscious sedation for a lumbar puncture. The combination of heart block and a predominantly lymphocytic cerebrospinal fluid led to the diagnosis of lyme disease. Lyme titres were strongly positive and subsequently confirmed by Western Blot analysis. Cardiac aetiologies and specifically heart block associated with lyme disease should be considered in patients from endemic areas presenting with fever and unexplained spells or seizure-like activity.
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2/19. Cranial subdural haematoma associated with dural puncture in labour.

    A 23-yr-old primagravida sustained a dural puncture during epidural catheter insertion and developed a headache that settled with oral diclofenac and codydramol. On the third day after delivery, she convulsed twice without warning. As plasma urate was increased, the putative diagnosis of an eclamptic fit was made, and magnesium therapy was started. A contrast CT scan revealed that the cause of the patient's symptoms was a subdural haematoma with raised intracranial pressure. A coincidental arteriovenous malformation was noted. This case emphasises the need to consider the differential diagnoses of post-partum headache. The management of acute intracranial haematoma is described.
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3/19. Bilateral frontal haemorrhages associated with continuous spinal analgesia.

    We report a case of intracerebral haemorrhages associated with continuous spinal analgesia. Continuous spinal analgesia is frequently employed for postoperative analgesia in high-risk patients in our institution. The analgesia is administered via a 20 gauge catheter passed through an 18 gauge Tuohy needle (Portex). A 71-year-old man with severe respiratory impairment had an intrathecal catheter placed for postoperative analgesia. He had a difficult postoperative course, including wound dehiscence, and died from respiratory failure some five weeks postoperatively. On day nine postoperatively he had two tonic-clonic seizures and was subsequently found to have developed bilateral frontal intracerebral haemorrhages. There was no previous history of seizures. Although several confounding variables exist, the most likely explanation for the intracerebral event appears to be an association with the dural puncture and intrathecal catheter Possible mechanisms and risk factors are discussed.
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4/19. Human herpesvirus 6 limbic encephalitis after stem cell transplantation.

    central nervous system complications are common in stem cell transplant recipients, but selective involvement of the medial temporal area is unusual. The 5 patients reported here presented after stem cell transplantation with increased hippocampal T2 signal on magnetic resonance imaging and increased hippocampal glucose uptake on [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) associated with short-term memory loss, insomnia, and temporal lobe electrographic seizure activity. The initial scalp electroencephalograms (EEGs) failed to detect seizure activity in these patients, although the memory dysfunction along with the magnetic resonance imaging and FDG-PET findings suggested subcortical seizure activity. However, extended EEG monitoring revealed repetitive temporal lobe electrographic seizure activity. Follow-up MRIs in 2 patients and postmortem findings on 1 patient suggested that hippocampal sclerosis had developed following the clinical syndrome. cerebrospinal fluid studies revealed the presence of human herpesvirus 6, variant B, dna in all of 3 patients who had lumbar punctures. Immunohistochemical staining for the P41 and P101 human herpesvirus 6 protein antigens showed numerous immunoreactive astrocytes and neurons in the hippocampus of 1 of the patients who died from other causes. Because of its subtle clinical presentation, this syndrome may be underrecognized, but can be diagnosed with appropriate magnetic resonance imaging techniques, EEG monitoring, and cerebrospinal fluid viral studies.
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5/19. Homonymous hemianopia following a triplet pregnancy: post-natal cerebral vasculitis or atypical eclampsia.

    A 46-year-old woman with a triplet pregnancy developed seizures, an oculogyric crisis and a homonymous hemianopia post-natally. Abnormal neuroimaging studies and lumbar puncture suggested possible cerebral vasculitis. Treatment with aciclovir and prednisolone resulted in a slow resolution of symptoms. This case highlights the difficulty in distinguishing eclampsia from rarer neurological causes of peripartum seizures.
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6/19. seizures after epidural blood patch with undiagnosed subdural hematoma.

    OBJECTIVE: We present a case of new-onset seizures in a parturient who received an epidural blood patch (EBP) in the presence of an undiagnosed cerebral subdural hematoma. We review the relevant literature and examine the implications for management. CASE REPORT: A 33-year-old parturient developed symptoms of postdural puncture headache 16 hours after initiation of epidural analgesia for labor. On the third postpartum day, she likely had an unwitnessed and unrecognized seizure. Presenting to hospital with headache and fatigue, she received an EBP. Forty-five minutes after the EBP, she had a generalized seizure followed by another 2 hours later. Imaging revealed a small cranial subdural hematoma. She had no further seizures, her headache improved, and she was discharged home on postpartum day 5. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that the subdural hematoma and not the EBP was the cause of the seizures. Earlier recognition of confusion and fatigue as a postictal state may have led to earlier diagnosis of the hematoma. Our experience suggests that EBP be avoided in the setting of subdural hematoma.
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7/19. Unexplained fitting in three parturients suffering from postdural puncture headache.

    We present the cases of three women who, within a 6-month period, suffered post-partum generalized tonic-clonic seizures. All had received an epidural in labour for analgesia and were subsequently diagnosed as suffering from postdural puncture headache. All were treated for that headache with Synacthen and one also received sumatriptan before her seizures. All made satisfactory recoveries and were discharged home. None displayed classical patterns suggestive of pre-eclampsia, meningitis, cortical venous thrombosis or any other pathological process that might explain these events adequately, and the specific precipitating factors were left unidentified.
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8/19. Convulsive syncope associated with acupuncture.

    syncope is a rare but known reaction to acupuncture; however, convulsive syncope has never been previously documented as a reaction to acupuncture. This case report describes an episode of convulsive syncope, characterized by irregular clonic-tonic movements while the patient was unconscious. The episode occurred immediately after the insertion of acupuncture needles into the bilateral ST-36 acupuncture point. Here we discuss the presentation, possible causes, and prevention of convulsive syncope.
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9/19. Recurrent post-partum seizures after epidural blood patch.

    There are many causes for headaches after childbirth. Even though postdural puncture headache (PDPH) has to be considered in a woman with a history of difficult epidural anaesthesia, pre-eclampsia should always be excluded as an important differential diagnosis. We report a case with signs of late-onset pre-eclampsia where administration of an epidural blood patch (EBP) was associated with eclampsia. A hypothetical causal relationship between the EBP and seizures was discarded on the basis of evidence presented in this report.
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10/19. Seizure following brief exposure to the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide.

    A 5-year-old boy with a history of mild developmental delay experienced a major motor seizure at day camp after topical application that morning of the insect repellent Muskol and a later application of OFF [both contain N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (deet)]. The patient continued convulsing in the emergency department and was treated with diazepam. Laboratory tests were unremarkable, as were lumbar puncture, computed tomography scan, and blood cultures. skin decontamination was performed. deet levels in the urine were 0.003 micrograms/mL. Although seizures and encephalopathic syndrome have been described with deet in previous case reports involving topical exposure of pediatric patients, atypical aspects with regard to this case include that this patient was a male (most other case reports involve females), exposure was relatively brief compared with other reports, and the patient developed seizures without a prodrome described in previous reports. Avoidance of high-concentration deet formulations in pediatric patients should be considered.
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