Cases reported "Seizures"

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1/134. Continuous EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit: early findings and clinical efficacy.

    The assessment of the neurocritical care patient involves serial assessment of neurologic status using bedside clinical examination and a variety of periodic neurophysiologic testing. Continuous electroencephalographic (CEEG) monitoring in the intensive care unit offers a unique means to track neurologic function directly and regionally. CEEG is becoming more widespread with a growing but small body of literature. The purpose of this paper is to outline the current experience with intensive care unit CEEG monitoring. The basic methods and caveats are discussed. We review the underlying rationale for using CEEG which is that secondary neurologic injury commonly occurs in the intensive care unit and at times is hard to detect. CEEG has a proven role in detecting secondary injuries, namely seizures and brain ischemia. The basic tenets of establishing clinical effectiveness for CEEG in the ICU are discussed while acknowledging a need for further study of clinical effectiveness. We review our initial clinical experience of CEEG in 300 patients and outline the clinical efficacy in terms of cost reduction and improvement in outcome (P < 0.01) using CEEG. Finally, several controversial aspects of CEEG are enumerated, and the need for additional study to answer these pressing questions is presented.
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2/134. Operative treatment of tentorial herniation in herpes encephalitis.

    herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of acute viral encephalitis in children. Due to the variety of possible clinical manifestations the diagnosis is often overlooked in the early stages of the disease. Anti-viral therapy with acyclovir should be started whenever HSE is suspected. When there is further deterioration under virostatic therapy, a brain biopsy should be performed to verify the diagnosis. But even when the adequate medical therapy is established, massive brain edema and brain shift resulting in tentorial herniation can develop. Up to now the reported mortality of these patients is still around 30%. Here we report on a child with severe necrotizing herpes simplex encephalitis who developed severe tentorial herniation due to a right-sided mass lesion. The patient's status markedly improved after decompressive anterior temporal lobe resection. To our knowledge a similar case has not yet been reported in the literature. We suggest that anterior temporal lobe resection and decompressive craniotomy is of benefit in selected cases with tentorial herniation because both decompression and reduction of infectious material can be achieved.
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3/134. Use of intravenous valproate in three pediatric patients with nonconvulsive or convulsive status epilepticus.

    OBJECTIVE: To report the pharmacokinetics of intravenous valproate (VPA) in children with generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) or nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). To provide loading and maintenance dosing for patients with hepatic induction secondary to concurrent anticonvulsants. CASE SUMMARY: Two patients (10 y, 34 mo) with GCSE refractory to benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and pentobarbital received intravenous VPA. Apparent volume of distribution (Vd) following a 20 mg/kg loading dose was 0.29 L/kg. maintenance infusions of 4-6 mg/kg/h produced steady-state total concentrations of 66 mg/L and 92.4 mg/L (unbound concentration 44.6 mg/L). Clearance ranged from 63-66 mL/h/kg. An eight-year-old with NCSE received intravenous VPA (13.4 mg/kg load followed by 9 mg/kg every 8 h). Total and unbound steady-state VPA concentrations were 32.9 mg/L and 21.2 mg/L, respectively. Elimination half-life was eight hours. DISCUSSION: We constructed a pharmacokinetic simulation using VPA parameters from children receiving mono- or polyanticonvulsants. Our Vd and elimination half-life rates were comparable with published pediatric values. patients on hepatic inducers had clearance rates 2.5 times those of children receiving oral anticonvulsant polytherapy. Unbound fractions (48.3% and 66%) were significantly higher than normal. CONCLUSIONS: A 20 mg/kg loading dose should produce a concentration after the bolus dose of approximately 75 mg/L. Initial infusion should consider hepatic induction (noninduced = 1 mg/kg/h, polyanticonvulsant therapy = 2 mg/kg/h, and high-dose pentobarbital = 4 mg/kg/h). Adjustments should be based on response and serum concentrations.
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4/134. X-linked mental retardation syndrome with short stature, small hands and feet, seizures, cleft palate, and glaucoma is linked to Xq28.

    Of the gene-rich regions of the human genome, Xq28 is the most densely mapped. Mutations of genes in this band are responsible for 10 syndromal forms of mental retardation and 5 nonsyndromal forms. Clinical and molecular studies reported here add an additional syndromic form of X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) to this region. The condition comprises short stature, small hands and feet, seizures, cleft palate, and glaucoma. One affected male died at age 19 years in status epilepticus, but others have survived to old age. Carrier females do not have somatic anomalies or mental impairment. The gene is localized to the terminal 8 Mb of Xq28 with markers distal to DXS8011 showing linkage to the disorder with a lod score of 2.11 at zero recombination.
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5/134. X-linked mental retardation syndrome with seizures, hypogammaglobulinemia, and progressive gait disturbance is regionally mapped between xq21.33 and Xq23.

    We identified a family with three males in two generations with moderate mental retardation. The two oldest were first cousins whose mothers were sisters. The third affected was a grandson through a daughter of one of the sisters, strongly suggesting X- linked inheritance. The affected males had prominent glabella, synophrys, prognathism, generalized hirsutism, and bilateral single palmar creases. All developed seizures in childhood. The two oldest have had a slow deterioration in neurological status with poor gait and balance and progressive weakness. No deterioration in their mental status has been observed. The oldest had cerebellar atrophy confirmed on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain and prolonged nerve conduction velocity. Two of the males had hypogammaglobulinemia (IgA deficient). Two-point linkage analysis using 27 microsatellite markers on the x chromosome resulted in a maximum lod score of 2.23 at straight theta = 0 for locus DSX101. Recombination was observed at locus DSX1170 in Xq21.33 and locus DXS8067 in Xq23. We conclude that this family represents an X-linked disorder associated with a recognizable phenotype, progressive neurological deterioration, and variable hypogammaglobulinemia. The gene appears to lie between Xq21.33 and Xq23.
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6/134. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in childhood localization-related epilepsy.

    PURPOSE: To report on three children with localization-related epilepsy who exhibited minor seizures (atypical absences, brief atonic, and myoclonic) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) consisting of these minor seizures, and to elucidate their significance. methods: We studied the electroclinical characteristics of these children. Ictal electroencephalograms (EEGs) of NCSE were evaluated by using simultaneous video-EEG-electromyogram (EMG) polygraphic recordings. RESULTS: All patients began to have partial seizures between the ages of 6 months and 2 years 7 months, with minor seizures appearing later, between the ages of 1 year 11 months and 6 years 6 months. These minor seizures evolved into NCSE. Complex partial seizures remained after suppression of the minor seizures. Interictal EEGs taken when the minor seizures appeared showed excessive diffuse epileptic discharges in addition to multifocal spike-waves. Before and after suppression of the minor seizures, focal epileptic discharges predominated on the EEGs. On ictal EEGs of brief atonic and myoclonic seizures, diffuse spike-wave and polyspike-wave bursts were detected. Ictal EEGs of the atypical absences revealed diffuse spike-wave bursts mixed with irregular high-voltage slow waves, often interspersed with brief atonic and myoclonic seizures. When atypical absences lasted for a long time, patients manifested NCSE. Polytherapy might be related to the occurrence of minor seizures and NCSE, because all patients were treated with polytherapy at their appearance, and simplification of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy seemed to be effective. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that this NCSE is a type of atypical absence status which is an age-dependent, transient, electroclinical condition. The mechanism of occurrence of these minor seizures might be related to secondary bilateral synchrony.
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7/134. Early rebleeding from intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: report of 20 cases and review of the literature.

    OBJECT: In this study the authors sought to estimate the frequency, seriousness, and delay of rebleeding in a homogeneous series of 20 patients whom they treated between May 1987 and May 1997 for arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) that were revealed by intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The natural history of intracranial dural AVFs remains obscure. In many studies attempts have been made to evaluate the risk of spontaneous hemorrhage, especially as a function of the pattern of venous drainage: a higher occurrence of bleeding was reported in AVFs with retrograde cortical venous drainage, with an overall estimated rate of 1.8% per year in the largest series in the literature. However, very few studies have been designed to establish the risk of rebleeding, an omission that the authors seek to remedy. methods: Presenting symptoms in the 20 patients (17 men and three women, mean age 54 years) were acute headache in 12 patients (60%), acute neurological deficit in eight (40%), loss of consciousness in five (25%), and generalized seizures in one (5%). Results of the clinical examination were normal in five patients and demonstrated a neurological deficit in 12 and coma in three. Computerized tomography scanning revealed intracranial bleeding in all cases (15 intraparenchymal hematomas, three subarachnoid hemorrhages, and two subdural hematomas). A diagnosis of AVF was made with the aid of angiographic studies in 19 patients, whereas it was a perioperative discovery in the remaining patient. There were 12 Type III and eight Type IV AVFs according to the revised classification of Djindjian and Merland, which meant that all AVFs in this study had retrograde cortical venous drainage. The mean duration between the first hemorrhage and treatment was 20 days. Seven patients (35%) presented with acute worsening during this delay due to radiologically proven early rebleeding. Treatment consisted of surgery alone in 10 patients, combined embolization and surgery in eight, embolization only in one, and stereotactic radiosurgery in one. Three patients died, one worsened, and in 16 (80%) neurological status improved, with 15 of 16 AVFs totally occluded on repeated angiographic studies (median follow up 10 months). CONCLUSIONS: The authors found that AVFs with retrograde cortical venous drainage present a high risk of early rebleeding (35% within 2 weeks after the first hemorrhage), with graver consequences than the first hemorrhage. They therefore advocate complete and early treatment in all cases of AVF with cortical venous drainage revealed by an ICH.
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8/134. hiv infection and seizures.

    New-onset seizures are frequent manifestations of central nervous system disorders in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (hiv). seizures are more common in advanced stages of the disease, although they may occur early in the course of illness. In the majority of patients, seizures are of the generalised type. status epilepticus is also frequent. Associated metabolic abnormalities increase the risk for status epilepticus. Cerebral mass lesions, cryptococcal meningitis, and hiv-encephalopathy are common causes of seizures. phenytoin is the most commonly prescribed anticonvulsant in this situation, although several patients may experience hypersensitivity reactions. The prognosis of seizure disorders in hiv-infected patients depends upon the underlying cause.
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9/134. Postoperative pseudostatus: not everything that shakes is epilepsy.

    Postoperative epileptic seizures are recognised but rare. Psychogenic seizures and pseudostatus epilepticus are relatively common, particularly in the peri-operative period. Our series of five cases of postoperative pseudostatus epilepticus demonstrates that the failure to recognise the psychogenic nature of this condition may cause anaesthetists to give inappropriate and potentially harmful treatment. Psychogenic 'status' is easy to diagnose once it has been considered. Convulsive episodes lasting longer than 90 s, closed eyes during a 'tonic-clonic' attack, retained pupillary response and resistance to eye opening are useful signs. Often there is a history of multiple admissions with 'status epilepticus' and of previous postoperative 'status'.
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10/134. Acute mental status changes and hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with long-term topiramate therapy.

    Mental status changes and metabolic acidosis may occur with topiramate therapy. These adverse events were reported during dosage titration and with high dosages of the drug. A 20-year-old man receiving topiramate, valproic acid, and phenytoin experienced acute-onset mental status changes with hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. He had been receiving a modest dose of topiramate for 9 months. He was weaned off topiramate over 5 days, and his mental status returned to baseline within 48 hours of discontinuing the agent. This case illustrates the need for close evaluation of patients who experience acute-onset mental status changes during topiramate therapy.
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