Cases reported "Seizures"

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1/166. Serial electroencephalographic findings in patients with MELAS.

    To clarify the electroencephalographic characteristics of mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS), the medical records and electroencephalograms of six patients with MELAS and two of their relatives with MELA (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, and lactic acidosis, without strokelike episodes) were retrospectively reviewed. All have a point mutation in the mitochondrial dna at nucleotide position 3243. The electroencephalograms (n = 79) were divided into four groups according to the time relation to the strokelike episode: (1) before the first strokelike episode, (2) within 5 days after the strokelike episode (acute stage), (3) between 6 days and 1 month after the strokelike episode (subacute stage), and (4) more than 1 month after the strokelike episode (chronic stage). In the acute stage, 10 of the 11 electroencephalograms (9 strokelike episodes in four patients) revealed focal high-voltage delta waves with polyspikes (FHDPS), which were recognized as ictal electroencephalogram. Ictal events during FHDPS included focal clonic or myoclonic seizure and migrainous headache. In the subacute and chronic stages, focal spikes or sharp waves and 14- and 6-Hz positive bursts were frequently recorded. The authors' results suggest that FHDPSs present a reliable and accurate indicator of a strokelike episode in patients with MELAS.
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2/166. Seizure-alert dogs--fact or fiction?

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that some dogs may be able to sense the onset of seizures and other medical conditions in humans, although this has never been explored scientifically. There is, however, evidence that dogs can be specially trained to recognize specific changes preceding a seizure and give an overt signal enabling the dog to warn his/her owner. The introduction of the use of dogs to detect and accurately predict the onset of a seizure, giving sufficient time for a person to take control of the situation will have a dramatic impact on quality of life. Support dogs, a registered charity which trains dogs to assist disabled people, has successfully trained several 'Seizure-alert dogs'. As training progressed, the dogs were able to provide overt signals to their owners within time periods varying from 15 to 45 minutes prior to a seizure occurring. Each dog had an accurate prediction time and, in each case, the owner's seizure frequency was reduced.
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3/166. phenobarbital dosing and pharmacokinetics in a neonate receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the dosing and pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in a neonate receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). CASE SUMMARY: The treatment of a 2.6 kg, 38-week gestational age boy with congenital diaphragmatic hernia who developed seizures while receiving ECMO support is described. A loading dose of 20 mg/kg resulted in concentrations of 16.4 and 12.9 micrograms/mL at 3 and 24 hours, respectively. A maintenance dose of 5 mg/kg/d provided a peak concentration of 19.7 micrograms/mL and trough concentration of 16.7 micrograms/mL after four doses. The calculated volume of distribution was 1.2 L/kg and the estimated elimination half-life was 92 hours. serum concentrations decreased after circuit changes unless the new circuit was redosed. DISCUSSION: The reported incidence of seizures in neonates while receiving ECMO support is 18%. Despite this frequency, there are no clinical reports describing anticonvulsant use in this population. This case demonstrates the use of standard phenobarbital doses to achieve low, but therapeutic, serum concentrations. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a volume of distribution slightly larger than expected in neonates and an elimination half-life similar to published values. Altering circulating blood volumes resulted in significant reductions in serum concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Neonates on ECMO may have a larger volume of distribution than neonates not receiving ECMO and may require larger phenobarbital doses to achieve desired serum concentrations. This may result from the presence of large exogenous blood volumes for priming, as well as loss of drug during circuit changes, extraction by the circuit, or hemofiltration. Further work is needed to better define the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of phenobarbital in the neonatal ECMO population.
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4/166. Ictal hemiparesis.

    Two subjects with ictal hemiparesis are described. Both children presented with evolving paresis associated with seizure activity. Structural neuroimaging remained consistently normal, although EEG demonstrated slow-wave activity, and SPECT scanning in one child showed perfusion asymmetry. Both children had resolution of the hemiparesis when seizure activity was adequately controlled. The historically proposed pathophysiology of ictal hemiparesis is that of inhibition of the somatosensory and motor areas of the cortex. The presence of an evolving hemiparesis and seizure activity associated with normal neuroimaging should prompt consideration of ictal hemiparesis. Confirmation of this rare diagnosis can only be made when seizure control leads to resolution of the paresis.
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5/166. Behavioral psychophysiological intervention in a mentally retarded epileptic patient with brain lesion.

    Behavioral psychophysiological treatment entailing Slow Cortical Potential (SCP) biofeedback training and behavioral self-control training was conducted with a 27-year-old male epileptic patient (seizures for 23 years) with Wechsler IQ 64 who underwent callosotomy. The patient had 12/week secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The treatment, consisting of 43 SCP training sessions and 22 behavioral control sessions, yielded a highly significant reduction of seizure frequency to about 7.5/week; such a decrease had never been observed after administration of new anticonvulsant drugs, nor after the callosotomy. During SCP feedback training, the patient was able to produce highly-significant cortical differentiation of SCPs of about 4 microV. In addition, he developed several new behaviors indicating growing ability of self-perception and self-regulation. These findings suggest that a combination of SCP biofeedback with behavioral treatment of epilepsy can be used even in mentally retarded patients with organic brain disorders.
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6/166. amitriptyline-associated seizures in a toddler with Munchausen-by-proxy.

    We describe an unusual case of a toddler diagnosed with an idiopathic seizure disorder that later was proved to be caused by deliberate administration of amitriptyline by his custodian. In spite of seizures associated with widened electrocardiographic wave (QRS) and right axis deviation on the electrocardiogram (EKG), the correct diagnosis eluded clinicians through a series of hospital admissions. Unfortunately, clinicians are quite accustomed to the fact that patients previously diagnosed with epilepsy have seizures and may not investigate other causes of seizure. This allowed classic signs of cyclic antidepressant poisoning to go unrecognized.
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7/166. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in childhood localization-related epilepsy.

    PURPOSE: To report on three children with localization-related epilepsy who exhibited minor seizures (atypical absences, brief atonic, and myoclonic) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) consisting of these minor seizures, and to elucidate their significance. methods: We studied the electroclinical characteristics of these children. Ictal electroencephalograms (EEGs) of NCSE were evaluated by using simultaneous video-EEG-electromyogram (EMG) polygraphic recordings. RESULTS: All patients began to have partial seizures between the ages of 6 months and 2 years 7 months, with minor seizures appearing later, between the ages of 1 year 11 months and 6 years 6 months. These minor seizures evolved into NCSE. Complex partial seizures remained after suppression of the minor seizures. Interictal EEGs taken when the minor seizures appeared showed excessive diffuse epileptic discharges in addition to multifocal spike-waves. Before and after suppression of the minor seizures, focal epileptic discharges predominated on the EEGs. On ictal EEGs of brief atonic and myoclonic seizures, diffuse spike-wave and polyspike-wave bursts were detected. Ictal EEGs of the atypical absences revealed diffuse spike-wave bursts mixed with irregular high-voltage slow waves, often interspersed with brief atonic and myoclonic seizures. When atypical absences lasted for a long time, patients manifested NCSE. Polytherapy might be related to the occurrence of minor seizures and NCSE, because all patients were treated with polytherapy at their appearance, and simplification of antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy seemed to be effective. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that this NCSE is a type of atypical absence status which is an age-dependent, transient, electroclinical condition. The mechanism of occurrence of these minor seizures might be related to secondary bilateral synchrony.
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8/166. Early rebleeding from intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: report of 20 cases and review of the literature.

    OBJECT: In this study the authors sought to estimate the frequency, seriousness, and delay of rebleeding in a homogeneous series of 20 patients whom they treated between May 1987 and May 1997 for arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) that were revealed by intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). The natural history of intracranial dural AVFs remains obscure. In many studies attempts have been made to evaluate the risk of spontaneous hemorrhage, especially as a function of the pattern of venous drainage: a higher occurrence of bleeding was reported in AVFs with retrograde cortical venous drainage, with an overall estimated rate of 1.8% per year in the largest series in the literature. However, very few studies have been designed to establish the risk of rebleeding, an omission that the authors seek to remedy. methods: Presenting symptoms in the 20 patients (17 men and three women, mean age 54 years) were acute headache in 12 patients (60%), acute neurological deficit in eight (40%), loss of consciousness in five (25%), and generalized seizures in one (5%). Results of the clinical examination were normal in five patients and demonstrated a neurological deficit in 12 and coma in three. Computerized tomography scanning revealed intracranial bleeding in all cases (15 intraparenchymal hematomas, three subarachnoid hemorrhages, and two subdural hematomas). A diagnosis of AVF was made with the aid of angiographic studies in 19 patients, whereas it was a perioperative discovery in the remaining patient. There were 12 Type III and eight Type IV AVFs according to the revised classification of Djindjian and Merland, which meant that all AVFs in this study had retrograde cortical venous drainage. The mean duration between the first hemorrhage and treatment was 20 days. Seven patients (35%) presented with acute worsening during this delay due to radiologically proven early rebleeding. Treatment consisted of surgery alone in 10 patients, combined embolization and surgery in eight, embolization only in one, and stereotactic radiosurgery in one. Three patients died, one worsened, and in 16 (80%) neurological status improved, with 15 of 16 AVFs totally occluded on repeated angiographic studies (median follow up 10 months). CONCLUSIONS: The authors found that AVFs with retrograde cortical venous drainage present a high risk of early rebleeding (35% within 2 weeks after the first hemorrhage), with graver consequences than the first hemorrhage. They therefore advocate complete and early treatment in all cases of AVF with cortical venous drainage revealed by an ICH.
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9/166. Paradoxical seizures in phenytoin toxicity.

    phenytoin toxicity is an uncommon problem seen in clinical practice. The predisposing factors for toxicity are hypoalbuminemia, chronic renal failure, hepatic dysfunction and drugs which interfere with phenytoin metabolism. Common manifestations of toxicity, like confusion and ataxia, are well known. A less well known phenomenon is paradoxical seizures. In this condition, seizures develop as the serum phenytoin level rises and decrease in frequency as levels drop. It may or may not be accompanied by other features of toxicity. We present three patients with paradoxical seizures; their serum phenytoin levels were 43.5 mcg/mL, 46.5 mcg/mL and 38.3 mcg/mL. In all cases, seizures were controlled by withdrawal of phenytoin and reduction of drug levels.
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10/166. Photosensitive and nonphotosensitive electronic screen game-induced seizures.

    PURPOSE: To disclose possible epileptologic differences between photosensitive and nonphotosensitive patients with seizures induced by electronic screen games (ESGs). methods: In patients with ESG-induced seizures who showed photo- and pattern sensitivity, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and EEG were performed simultaneously during ESG play, and equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) of the MEG spikes were estimated. In patients without ESG-induced seizures, who were surgical candidates, the intracranial EEG was analyzed for changes in epileptiform spike frequency. RESULTS: Fifteen of 29 patients were photo- or pattern sensitive, and they had a posterior predominance of ECDs of the MEG spikes. In contrast, nonphotosensitive patients had an anterior predominance of ECDs. Other seizure-precipitating factors in the nonphotosensitive patients included hand manipulation or spatial processing. In patients without a history of ESG-induced seizures who underwent intracranial EEG monitoring for surgical evaluation, ESG playing induced changes in spike frequency in the supplementary motor area, perisylvian region, and medial temporal lobe. CONCLUSIONS: In photosensitive patients, interictal MEG spikes arise predominantly from the posterior region of the brain. In nonphotosensitive patients, epileptiform spikes tend to originate in the anterior part of the brain. Thus factors involving functions of the anterior part of the brain other than photo- or pattern sensitivity may play a role in the induction of seizures during ESG play. Furthermore, the changes in spike frequency in specific brain areas may correspond to their involvement in praxic activity and emotional changes during ESG play. A chance occurrence of seizures during ESG play also was observed.
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