Cases reported "Self Mutilation"

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1/5. A component analysis of functional communication training across three topographies of severe behavior problems.

    We evaluated the separate treatment components of a functional communication training program for 3 severely handicapped persons who each displayed different topographies of aberrant behavior. Following a functional analysis of maintaining conditions for inappropriate behavior (self-injury, stereotypy, aggression), each participant was trained to emit a communicative response that functioned to solicit reinforcement. For 2 participants, consequences (time-out or graduated guidance) for inappropriate behavior were also included. Treatment continued until the participants emitted the communicative response independently and no occurrences of inappropriate behavior were observed for at least two sessions. Following treatment, the separate contributions of the treatment components for communicative responding and for inappropriate behavior were evaluated with a reversal design. The results indicated that both sets of treatment components were necessary for maximal control over aberrant behavior. These results are discussed in relation to the efficiency, history, and control over reinforcement of both appropriate and inappropriate responses.
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keywords = communication
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2/5. Reducing severe aggressive and self-injurious behaviors with functional communication training.

    Functional communication training is a behavioral intervention that incorporates a comprehensive assessment of the communicative functions of maladaptive behavior with procedures to teach alternative and incompatible responses. In two studies severe aggressive and self-injurious behaviors exhibited by two adult men with mental retardation were reduced through the implementation of functional communication training. In both studies, these reductions came after years of less successful nonaversive and aversive interventions and generalized across staff, new environments, and increasing task demands. The role of this training as a refinement of the traditional differential reinforcement of other behavior and as an alternative to the use of aversive interventions was discussed.
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keywords = communication
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3/5. Using water mist to reduce self-injurious and stereotypic behavior.

    A mist of water sprayed in the face was used as a punisher for stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors by a boy diagnosed as severely mentally retarded with autistic-like behaviors. The boy had a long history of mouthing and hand-biting behaviors. The latter behavior was evinced by noticeable scar tissue on the backs of his hands. The study took place in a self-contained public school classroom for autistic children and other children with severe communication disorders and functional mental retardation. An ABAB withdrawal design with no treatment probes demonstrated the rapid and dramatic suppressive effects that the response-contingent water mist had on the target behaviors. This procedure was taught to classroom personnel who were able to maintain the suppression with minimal interruption of educational programming for the subject or his peers. No adverse physical effects were observed nor did the child attempt to escape or struggle against the procedure. The results are discussed in relation to ethical considerations and the use of response-contingent aversive stimulation.
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keywords = communication
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4/5. Six case studies depicting the deliberate self-harm syndrome.

    This article comprises information on self-mutilation (and specifically on the Deliberate Self-harm syndrome) which obtained from a study of mainly American and British literature. Included is data obtained from interviews conducted with a sample of South Africans suffering from the syndrome. Etiology was explained from both a psychological and biological perspective. The former highlighted deficiencies in coping and communication skills while the latter highlighted the compulsive and pain-killer role that endorphines play. From case studies and literature it was possible to clearly distinguish the Deliberate Self-harm syndrome as a distinct disorder-a syndrome consisting of deliberate, repetitive and private acts of self-harm in the form of cutting, burning and banging oneself. This culminates in extreme tension release.
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keywords = communication
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5/5. On background factors of male genital self-mutilation.

    Background factors of male genital self-mutilation have been suggested in a small series of cases. A review of 110 cases in the literature revealed that guilt feelings associated with sexual conflicts were the most important factors in the act of psychotic self-mutilation and also related to religious psychotic experiences that were often the direct motives for the act. Self-mutilators with sexual guilt feelings were likely to mutilate themselves more severely than those without. Even excluding transsexuals, disturbance of sexual identity was most participating in the act of nonpsychotic self-mutilators. In addition to these, previous history of self-injury took part in the act independently. male genital self-mutilation is exceedingly rare in psychiatric practice even if it is not as uncommon as the paucity of published literature on the subject would suggest. According to Blacker et al., the earliest report in English of male genital self-mutilation is Stroch's brief communication in 1901. Greilsheimer and Groves found 53 cases in the English literature that had been reported till 1979. We present a case report with male genital self-mutilation and examine the background factors of this phenomenon from a review of the literature. We used the literature files 'medline' from 1979 to 1993 and the references of famous reports. In statistical analyses, we performed two-tailed t tests for continuous variables and chi 2 tests with Yates correction for categorical variables.
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keywords = communication
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