Cases reported "Sepsis"

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1/83. Staged operative treatment in a septic patient with an infected, unstable pelvis, and a missed bladder rupture.

    This case demonstrates once again the potential and serious complications of pelvic fractures, especially when associated urogenital injuries are missed. Missing the bladder rupture proved almost fatal to our patient. Second, it was confirmed that in very unstable pelvic fractures, external fixation alone does not provide enough stability. Local stability is the cornerstone in the treatment of (bone) infection, and in these cases, maximal stability is only obtainable with internal fixation. The advantages of metal implants in infected areas outweigh the disadvantages by far. For the bladder-rupture, we chose a two-stage approach. First, we performed a urinary diversion, to avoid surgical closure of the infiltrated bladder wall. All cavities, including the open bladder, were packed with omentum to fill the dead space with highly vital tissue to offer stout resistance to infection. Two years later, with the patient in excellent physical condition, urinary undiversion was carried out. Ultimately physical and social recovery was complete.
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2/83. anesthesia in a patient with undiagnosed salicylate poisoning presenting as intraabdominal sepsis.

    An 81-year-old woman with unintentional salicylate intoxication presented with features of sepsis, abdominal pain, and tenderness. laparotomy was performed to rule out acute cholecystitis. anesthesia was complicated by severe hypercarbia despite hyperventilation, and progressive cardiovascular and neurologic deterioration postoperatively. The adverse neurologic, respiratory, and hepatic effects of abdominal surgery and general anesthesia probably potentiated salicylate toxicity and increased patient morbidity. Anesthesiologists should be aware of the protean manifestations of salicylate poisoning and consider it as a cause of "medical abdomen."
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keywords = operative
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3/83. Congenital neutropenia. Report of a case and a biorationale for dental management.

    Congenital neutropenia is characterized by a marked decrease in or lack of circulating PMN's in children with no prior history of drug intake. The neutropenia is persistent and the clinical course is one of early onset of severe, recurrent, and eventually fatal infections. bone marrow studies show a maturation arrest of neutrophilic precursors. Because of their greatly increased susceptibility to infection, patients with congenital neutropenia present a difficult dental management problem. A case of congenital neutropenia has been presented, as well as a biorationale for dental treatment. On the basis of reports in the literature, the following recommendations for the management of patients with congenital neutropenia are made: 1. The prevention and control of infection and the interception of dental disease before surgical intervention becomes necessary should be the overriding considerations in the management of patients with congenital neutropenia. 2. The carious breakdown of teeth should be prevented by the daily application of a 0.4 per cent stannous fluoride gel in addition to oral hygiene and limitation of sucrose intake. 3. Periodontal therapy should be palliative only, since alveolar bone loss is progressive despite frequent oral hygiene instruction and prophylaxis. The goal of periodontal therapy for patients with congenital neutropenia should therefore be a decrease in gingival inflammation to make the patient's mouth more comfortable and to slow down alveolar bone loss. Periodontal surgery is contraindicated. 4. bacteremia and subsequent septicemia should be prevented since a minor infection can become life threatening in patients with congenital neutropenia. The patient should rinse for 30 seconds and the gingival sulci should be irrigated with a phenolated antiseptic mouthwash prior to all dental manipulations of the soft tissue. This will significantly reduce the incidence of bacteremia. 5. Surgery should be avoided if at all possible because of the high risk of post-operative infection. All surgery sholld be performed in the hospital, and the patient should be given antibiotics as determined by his physician. Primary closure should be done with fine polyglycolic acid sutures to reduce the chance of infection. If postoperative infection can be prevented, wound healing will progress normally despite the complete absence of PMN's.
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keywords = operative
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4/83. Low blood glucose levels and other complications during growth hormone supplementation in sepsis.

    blood glucose levels in the high normal range or even moderate hyperglycemia is the expected profile in septic postoperative patients receiving high-calorie enteral alimentation. The addition of growth hormone as an anabolic agent should additionally reinforce this tendency. In a cancer patient undergoing partial gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy and suffering from postoperative subphrenic abscess and prolonged sepsis, tube feeding (38.3 kcal/kg/day) and growth hormone (0.17 IU/kg/day) were simultaneously administered for 25 days. blood glucose levels were in the lower limits of the normal range before growth hormone introduction, and continued with a similar tendency during most of the therapeutic period. Two additional complications, namely heart arrest and peripheral edema, were documented during the same period. It is concluded that sepsis was the most likely mechanism for low glucose values, and that high-calorie enteral diet and growth hormone supplementation did not prevent that result. It is uncertain whether heart arrest was due to the drug, but its association with peripheral edema is well documented in clinical series.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = operative
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5/83. Transient EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia in a patient with sepsis.

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (EDTA-PTCP) is the phenomenon of a spurious low platelet count due to antiplatelet antibodies that cause platelet clumping in blood anticoagulated with EDTA. We describe a case of EDTA-PTCP that appeared transiently with the development of sepsis. A 50-year-old man underwent Bentall's aortic root replacement for acute aortic dissection with aortic insufficiency. Postoperatively the patient suffered paralytic ileus followed by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus enteritis and septicemia with endotoxemia. EDTA-PTCP appeared with the development of sepsis, and disappeared with its resolution. To avoid incorrect diagnoses and inappropriate treatment, EDTA-PTCP should always be considered as a possible cause of reported low platelet counts, even in patients with sepsis.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = operative
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6/83. Sternal osteomyelitis and mediastinitis after open-heart operation: pathogenesis and prevention.

    Sternal osteomyelitis and mediastinitis caused by pseudomonas cepacia developed in a patient undergoing coronary artery bypass two weeks after the operation. P. cepacia bacteremia from a contaminated pressure transducer had preceded and probably caused the chest infection. While other authors have suggested that postoperative sternal osteomyelitis and mediastinitis result from local wound contamination, this case suggests the importance of bacteremia as a cause of such gram-negative infections. Since patients undergoing open-heart operation are exposed to many sources of bacteremia, prevention of severe postoperative chest infections may depend in large part on careful preoperative evaluation of each patienc antibiotic regimens, and, as shown in this patient, on very thorough periodic review of equipment sterilization and intravascular monitoring practices.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = operative
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7/83. adrenal insufficiency masquerading as sepsis in a patient with tetraparesis: a case report.

    Several endocrine changes have been reported in patients with tetraplegia after spinal cord injury (SCI). These changes should be considered when prescribing medications that influence the endocrine pathways. megestrol acetate has gained acceptance as a way to promote weight gain in cachectic patients without significant adverse effects. We present a case of a 51-year-old man with C5-C6 tetraparesis who was only 67% of his ideal body weight and was placed on megestrol acetate 5 months before admission for a urologic procedure. Postoperatively, the patient had severe hypotension and tachycardia that was interpreted as a septic or cardiac event. Further workup revealed subnormal levels of 8AM cortisol. An adrenocorticotrophic hormone stimulation test demonstrated results consistent with adrenal suppression. hydrocortisone supplementation was started, and 6 months later cortisol levels were within normal limits. cachexia, hypotension, and mild tachycardia are not uncommon in patients with SCI. When severe hypotension and tachycardia are seen in patients with tetraplegia, the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency should be considered.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = operative
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8/83. First reported successful management of serratia marcescens bacteremia after open heart surgery in a child.

    A 7 and one-half yr-old girl developed bacteremia from S. marcescens following debanding of the pulmonary artery and closure of multiple ventricular septal defects with a Dacron patch and multiple Teflon pledgets. The site of entry was probably a radial arterial catheter left in place for 8 days. infection was eradicated by a combination of gentamicin and carbenicillin over a 4-wk period. Of 12 cases of postoperative Serratia bacteremia in adults following valve replacement, only four survived. Antibiotics of proven effectiveness against the specific isolated Serratia strain, prompt therapy sustained for 6 wk offers the prospect for cure of this serious complication of cardiac surgery.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = operative
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9/83. Therapeutic approaches to anergy in surgical patients. Surgery and levamisole.

    skin tests (ST) in 1332 patients are associated with increased morbidity from sepsis. patients with normal skin tests had a 7% major sepsis rate and 2% mortality rate. Thirty-six per cent of anergic (A) patients and 21% of relatively anergic (RA) patients died; 52% of A patients and 34% of RA patients had sepsis. These data include all patients studied and represent their worst skin test. Two studies were done. The first was a retrospective evaluation of effect of surgery upon 49 anergic patients with biliary tract disease, colon cancer, bowel obstruction, hypovolemia and visceral abscesses. The patients did not receive total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The data show that surgery without TPN can reverse the anergic state and did so in 84% of patients reported. The second study was a prospective, double-blind, randomized trial of the effect of levamisole on skin tests, neutrophil chemotaxis (CTX), sepsis and mortality iin 39 preoperative anergic patients. Major sepsis was significantly increased in placebo group (p less than 0.05). mortality, minor sepsis, restoration of skin tests and chemotaxis were somewhat better in levamisole patients but not statistically so. These studies show that in addition to TPN, surgery and immunorestorative drugs are viable approaches to the management of selected anergic patients.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = operative
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10/83. Concomitant inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver and spleen.

    We report the case of a 53-year-old man with inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) of the liver and spleen. This concomitant association has rarely been reported. The patient presented with a hypoechoic mass in the liver and a clinical picture of recurrent sepsis; hematochemical exams and imaging data were nonspecific. Antibiotic therapy improved the clinical course, but did not resolve it definitively. After 50 days of therapy, as the hepatic mass decreased a similar lesion appeared in the spleen. The final diagnosis was made on splenectomy and an intra-operative biopsy of the residual liver lesion. The diagnostic problems encountered in this very rare association of IPT of the liver and spleen were similar to those for isolated IPT in the respective single organ sites. After 15 months of follow-up, the patient is in good health and no recurrence of symptoms or masses has been observed.
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ranking = 0.25
keywords = operative
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