Cases reported "Sepsis"

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1/5. Fatal bowel infarction and sepsis: an unusual complication of systemic strongyloidiasis.

    A 58 year old Chinese male, one week after arriving in canada from hong kong, presented with acute abdominal pain and diarrhoea which was rapidly followed by escherichia coli infection causing septicaemia and meningitis. His past history revealed bronchial asthma for 15 years treated with steroids. At laparotomy, 7 days after the onset of symptoms, he was found to have extensive haemorrhagic infarction of the small bowel and right colon. Examination of the fibrosed mesenteric vessels revealed numerous filariform larvae of strongyloides stercoralis, within the walls, and in all layers of bowel wall. The role of the parasite in the production of obliterative arteritis in this fatal case of haemorrhagic enteropathy is discussed. Clinical strongyloidiasis, in uncomplicated cases, varies from mild to severe with gastroenteritis, nausea, colicky abdominal pain, electrolyte imbalance and symptoms of malabsorption syndrome (MARCIAL-ROJAS, 1971). In malnourished individuals and patients with debilitating infections, either newly acquired or asymptomatic latent infection with S. stercoralis can assume severe dimensions (BROWN and perna, 1958; HUGHTON and HORN, 1959). Similarly, in patients on steroid (CRUZ et al., 1966; WILLIS and MWOKOLO, 1966; NEEFE et al., 1973) and immunosuppressive therapy for lymphomatous diseases or deficient in immune response (ROGERS and NELSON, 1966; RIVERA et al., 1970), systemic strongyloidiasis is often fatal. The increased frequency of auto-infection in such patients with a breached immune barrier is, however, unclear. Further complications of this infection due to severe enterocolitis result in sepsis, bacteraemia and meningitis (BROWN and perna, 1958; HUGHTON and HORN, 1959). This paper presents a fatal case of S. stercoralis infection which illustrates an uncommon if not unique, mechanism in its production of haemorrhagic enteropathy leading to sepsis and death.
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2/5. strongyloides stercoralis infestation associated with septicemia due to intestinal transmural migration of bacteria.

    strongyloides stercoralis infestation is common in the tropics and is usually asymptomatic. patients with immunocompromised states may develop hyperinfection and fulminant disease. It has been suggested that bacteria accompany S. stercoralis during its passage across the bowel wall, resulting in systemic sepsis. Herein is a report on a 30-year-old man with S. stercoralis infestation and small bowel bacterial overgrowth presenting as malabsorption syndrome. He developed extensive duodenojejunal ulceration, septicemia and fatal hypokalemia. blood and jejunal fluid grew escherichia coli with the same antibiotic sensitivity patterns. This supports the hypothesis of migration of bacteria from the intestinal lumen as a cause of septicemia in patients with fulminant S. stercoralis infestation.
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3/5. An unusual cause of alveolar hemorrhage post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is being increasingly used in cancer therapy. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, an early complication of stem cell transplant, results from bacterial, viral and fungal infections, coagulopathy, and engraftment syndrome, or can be idiopathic. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in stem cell transplant patients has been rarely reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe an unusual cause of alveolar hemorrhage post hematopoietic stem cell transplant due to Strongyloides hyperinfection. Therapy with parenteral ivermectin and thiabendazole was initiated but the patient deteriorated and died of respiratory failure and septic shock. CONCLUSION: strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection is an unusual cause of alveolar hemorrhage early after hematopoietic stem cell transplant with very high mortality.
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keywords = stercoralis
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4/5. Overwhelming strongyloidiasis: an unappreciated opportunistic infection.

    strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode which infects a large portion of the world's population. Individuals with infection confined to the intestinal tract are often asymptomatic but may have abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea, and other nonspecific complaints. Enhanced proliferation of the parasite in compromised hosts causes an augmentation of the normal life-cycle. Resultant massive invasion of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs is termed the hyperinfection syndrome. If the worm burden is excessive, parasitic invasion of other tissues occurs and is termed disseminated strongyloidiasis. A variety of underlying conditions appear to predispose to severe infections. These are primarily diseases characterized by immunodeficiency due to defective T-lymphocyte function (Table 1). Individuals with less severe disorders become compromised hosts because of therapeutic regimens consisting of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medication. The debilitation of chronic illness or malnutrition also predisposes to systemic stronglyloidiasis. The diagnosis of strongyloidiasis can be readily made by microscopic examination of concentrates of upper small bowel fluid, stool, or sputum. Important clues suggesting this infection include unexplained gram-negative bacillary bacteremia in a compromised host who may have vague abdominal complaints, an ileus pattern on X-ray, and pulmonary infiltrates. eosinophilia is helpful, if present, but should not be relied upon to exclude the diagnosis. The treatment of systemic infection due to strongyloides stercoralis with either thiabensazole 25 mg/kg orally twice daily is satisfactory if the diagnosis is made early. Because of several unusual features of this illness in compromised hosts, the standard recommendation for 2 days of therapy should be abandoned in such patients. Immunodeficiency, corticosteroids, and bowel ileus reduce drug efficacy. Thus a longer treatment period of at leuch as blind loops or diverticula necessitate longer treatment. Stool specimens and upper small bowel aspirates should be monitored regularly and treatment continued several days beyond the last evidence of the parasite. In particularly difficult situations where either worm eradication is impossible or reinfection is probable, short monthly courses of antihelminthic therapy seem to be effective in averting recurrent systemic illness. Finally, prevention of hyperinfection or dissemination due to strongyloides stercoralis can be accomplished by screening immunocompromised hosts with stool and upper small bowel aspirate examinations. These would be especially important prior to initiating chemotherapy, or before giving immunosuppressive medications or corticosteroids to patients with nonneoplastic conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus, nephrotic syndrome, or renal allografts.
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5/5. Syndrome of hyperinfection with strongyloides stercoralis.

    Two patients hyperinfected with strongyloides stercoralis (an intestinal nematode) are described. Both were both in puerto rico and had left the island six to 15 years previously; both were receiving adrenal steroids (one for Hodgkin's disease and the other for Goodpasture's syndrome). One died shortly after diagnosis, but the other survived the hyperinfection syndrome and complicating bacterial sepsis and meningitis. In addition to our case reports, 103 previously described cases of presumed strongyloides hyperinfection are reviewed. Among 89 patients immunocompromised by therapy or disease, the mortality rate was 86%; bacterial sepsis often contributed to the fatal outcome. In most cases, infection was acquired in an endemic area, sometimes long before the hyperinfection syndrome occurred. The few patients who had never been to an endemic area had a history of prolonged contact with highly soiled material, an observation suggesting cross infection from a contaminated person. When administered in time, thiabendazole, the drug of choice for strongyloidiasis, was effective in 70% of cases. If intestinal infection with S. stercoralis is detected and treated before immunosuppressive therapy is initiated and if a high index of suspicion for the hyperinfection syndrome is maintained while immunosuppressive therapy is given, the mortality from this disease should decrease.
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ranking = 2.2821631618826
keywords = stercoralis, strongyloides
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