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1/12. Identification and containment of an outbreak of SARS in a community hospital.

    BACKGROUND: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is continuing to spread around the world. All hospitals must be prepared to care for patients with SARS. Thus, it is important to understand the transmission of this disease in hospitals and to evaluate methods for its containment in health care institutions. We describe how we cared for the first 2 patients with SARS admitted to our 419-bed community hospital in Richmond Hill, Ont., and the response to a SARS outbreak within our institution. methods: We collected clinical and epidemiological data about patients and health care workers at our institution who during a 13-day period had a potential unprotected exposure to 2 patients whose signs and symptoms were subsequently identified as meeting the case definition for probable SARS. The index case at our hospital was a patient who was transferred to our intensive care unit (ICU) from a referral hospital on Mar. 16, 2003, where he had been in close proximity to the son of the individual with the first reported case of SARS in Toronto. After 13 days in the ICU, a diagnosis of probable SARS was reached for our index case. Immediately upon diagnosis of our index case, respiratory isolation and barrier precautions were instituted throughout our hospital and maintained for a period of 10 days, which is the estimated maximum incubation period reported for this disease. Aggressive surveillance measures among hospital staff, patients and visitors were also maintained during this time. RESULTS: During the surveillance period, 15 individuals (10 hospital staff, 3 patients and 2 visitors) were identified as meeting the case definition for probable or suspected SARS, in addition to our index case. All but 1 individual had had direct contact with a symptomatic patient with SARS during the period of unprotected exposure. No additional cases were identified after infection control precautions had been implemented for 8 days. No cases of secondary transmission were identified in the 21 days following the implementation of these precautions at our institution. INTERPRETATION: SARS can easily be spread by direct personal contact in the hospital setting. We found that the implementation of aggressive infection control measures is effective in preventing further transmission of this disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = transmission
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2/12. severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in singapore: clinical features of index patient and initial contacts.

    severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an emerging viral infectious disease. One of the largest outbreaks of SARS to date began in singapore in March 2003. We describe the clinical, laboratory, and radiologic features of the index patient and the patient's initial contacts affected with probable SARS.
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ranking = 2.1568761328977
keywords = infectious disease
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3/12. lung pathology of fatal severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    BACKGROUND: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a novel infectious disease with global impact. A virus from the family coronaviridae has been identified as the cause, but the pathogenesis is still unclear. methods: Post-mortem tissue samples from six patients who died from SARS in February and March, 2003, and an open lung biopsy from one of these patients were studied by histology and virology. Only one full autopsy was done. Evidence of infection with the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and human metapneumovirus was sought by reverse-transcriptase PCR and serology. Pathological samples were examined by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. FINDINGS: All six patients had serological evidence of recent infection with SARS-CoV. Diffuse alveolar damage was common but not universal. Morphological changes identified were bronchial epithelial denudation, loss of cilia, and squamous metaplasia. Secondary bacterial pneumonia was present in one case. A giant-cell infiltrate was seen in four patients, with a pronounced increase in macrophages in the alveoli and the interstitium of the lung. Haemophagocytosis was present in two patients. The alveolar pneumocytes also showed cytomegaly with granular amphophilic cytoplasm. The patient for whom full autopsy was done had atrophy of the white pulp of the spleen. Electron microscopy revealed viral particles in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells corresponding to coronavirus. INTERPRETATION: SARS is associated with epithelial-cell proliferation and an increase in macrophages in the lung. The presence of haemophagocytosis supports the contention that cytokine dysregulation may account, at least partly, for the severity of the clinical disease. The case definition of SARS should acknowledge the range of lung pathology associated with this disease.
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ranking = 2.1568761328977
keywords = infectious disease
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4/12. severe acute respiratory syndrome--singapore, 2003.

    The singapore Ministry of Health (MOH), with assistance from the world health organization (WHO), has been investigating an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). This is a novel condition caused by the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and is characterized by both an atypical pneumonia and efficient nosocomial transmission. This report summarizes epidemiologic features of this outbreak in singapore, including the influence of super spreaders and the national prevention and control strategy.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = transmission
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5/12. severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in a liver transplant recipient and guidelines for donor SARS screening.

    severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a recently described infectious entity with salient features of fever, headache and malaise, with rapid progression to pneumonitis. The etiology of SARS is likely a novel coronavirus. During the winter of 2003, an outbreak of SARS involving several hospitals occurred in Toronto, canada. We describe a patient post liver transplant who contracted SARS and died during the outbreak, with subsequent infection of family and several health-care workers. A novel coronavirus was detected in respiratory specimens by PCR. Due to the potential severity of SARS in transplant recipients and the large number of cases of SARS in the community, in order to avoid transmission of SARS from a donor, we developed guidelines for SARS screening of organ donors. A screening tool based on potential hospital SARS exposure, clinical symptoms, and epidemiological exposure was used to stratify donors as high, intermediate or low risk for SARS. As SARS spreads throughout the world, it may become an increasingly significant problem for transplant patients and programs.
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ranking = 0.33333333333333
keywords = transmission
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6/12. Infants born to mothers with severe acute respiratory syndrome.

    severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly discovered infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus. During the community outbreak in hong kong, 5 liveborn infants were born to pregnant women with SARS. A systematic search for perinatal transmission of the SARS-associated coronavirus, including serial reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays, viral cultures, and paired serologic titers, failed to detect the virus in any of the infants. In addition, none of the infants developed clinical, radiologic, hematologic, or biochemical evidence suggestive of SARS. One preterm infant developed jejunal perforation and another developed necrotizing enterocolitis with ileal perforation shortly after birth. This case series is the first report to describe the clinical course of the first cohort of liveborn infants born to pregnant women with SARS.
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ranking = 2.4902094662311
keywords = infectious disease, transmission
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7/12. Lack of SARS transmission and U.S. SARS case-patient.

    In early April 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was diagnosed in a pennsylvania resident after his exposure to persons with SARS in Toronto, canada. To identify contacts of the case-patient and evaluate the risk for SARS transmission, a detailed epidemiologic investigation was performed. On the basis of this investigation, 26 persons (17 healthcare workers, 4 household contacts, and 5 others) were identified as having had close contact with this case-patient before infection-control practices were implemented. Laboratory evaluation of clinical specimens showed no evidence of transmission of SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection to any close contact of this patient. This investigation documents that, under certain circumstances, SARS-CoV is not readily transmitted to close contacts, despite ample unprotected exposures. Improving the understanding of risk factors for transmission will help focus public health control measures.
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ranking = 2.3333333333333
keywords = transmission
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8/12. Possible SARS coronavirus transmission during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Infection of healthcare workers with the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is thought to occur primarily by either contact or large respiratory droplet transmission. However, infrequent healthcare worker infections occurred despite the use of contact and droplet precautions, particularly during certain aerosol-generating medical procedures. We investigated a possible cluster of SARS-CoV infections in healthcare workers who used contact and droplet precautions during attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation of a SARS patient. Unlike previously reported instances of transmission during aerosol-generating procedures, the index case-patient was unresponsive, and the intubation procedure was performed quickly and without difficulty. However, before intubation, the patient was ventilated with a bag-valve-mask that may have contributed to aerosolization of SARS-CoV. On the basis of the results of this investigation and previous reports of SARS transmission during aerosol-generating procedures, a systematic approach to the problem is outlined, including the use of the following: 1) administrative controls, 2) environmental engineering controls, 3) personal protective equipment, and 4) quality control.
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ranking = 2.3333333333333
keywords = transmission
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9/12. severe acute respiratory syndrome from the trenches, at a singapore university hospital.

    The epidemiology and virology of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) have been written about many times and several guidelines on the infection control and public health measures believed necessary to control the spread of the virus have been published. However, there have been few reports of the problems that infectious disease clinicians encounter when dealing with the protean manifestations of this pathogen. This is a qualitative account of some of the issues faced by an infectious disease physician when identifying and treating patients with SARS as well as protecting other healthcare workers and patients, including: identification of the chain of contagion, early recognition of the disease in the absence of a reliable and rapid diagnostic test, appropriate use of personal protective equipment, and the use of isolation to prevent super-spreading events. Many issues need to be addressed if clinicians are to be able to manage the virus should it reappear.
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ranking = 4.3137522657955
keywords = infectious disease
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10/12. Clinical manifestations of two cases with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in I-Lan County.

    severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a new respiratory tract infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus. As of this report, there were 3 probable SARS cases in I-Lan County. Of them, 1 was deceased in another hospital and the remaining 2 were cured and discharged. This report describes the clinical manifestations of the 2 surviving probable cases. The first case had a travel history to Guangdong province, china, and the second case probably contracted the disease from a hospital outbreak. They both developed infiltrations over uni- or bilateral lungs but recovered without intubations. Their treatment modalities included empirical antibiotics, steroids, and anti-viral agents. As SARS becomes an emerging infectious disease in the 21st century, its clinical manifestations and treatment will be discussed.
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ranking = 4.3137522657955
keywords = infectious disease
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