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1/13. Successful human umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation without conditioning in severe combined immune deficiency.

    A 2-month-old girl with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), presented with mild staphylococcal skin infection, lymphopenia, low T cell number, absence of B cells, high number of NK cells, and a negligible response to mitogens. Since her older brother died as a result of SCID 2 years earlier, cord blood was harvested from a sister born 2 1/2 years earlier, who was normal and fully matched both by serology and molecular typing. In view of her clinical condition and in spite of a high number of NK cells with normal activity, HUCBT without preparative conditioning was performed. No G-CSF was administered. Engraftment with mixed chimerism was evident 3 weeks post transplantation. There were no peritransplantation complications. Eighteen months post transplantation, the girl is in excellent condition, blood counts are normal, T cell engraftment is complete, B cell engraftment is proceeding gradually, and the mitogen stimulation tests are normal. Due to the unique nature of HUCB hematopoietic cells, engraftment without conditioning may be possible in patients with SCID with fully matched donors. This is the first HUCBT performed without conditioning.
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2/13. B cell function after haploidentical in utero bone marrow transplantation in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    An in utero paternal CD34( ) cell transplant was performed in a T-B NK SCID fetus. We report here the results of the 3-year humoral immune reconstitution study. The methods used were ApoB VNTR typing, flow cytometry, nephelometry, hemagglutination, ELISA, ELISPOT and lymphoproliferative assays. The T cells were of donor origin whereas monocytes, B and NK cells were of host origin. Peripheral B cell counts and IgM levels were normal since birth. IVIG therapy was required at 5 months of age until 2 years old. IgA levels > or =20 mg/dl were detected from month 17 post transplantation. Isohemagglutinins were present since month 8 post transplantation, the highest titers (anti-A:1/128, anti-B:1/32) were obtained at month 33 post-transplantation. After immunization with rHBsAg, circulating anti-HBsAg IgG secreting cells and a 7.8-fold increase in serum anti-HBsAg Ab were detected. We conclude that split chimerism following in utero haploidentical BMT allows complete humoral immune reconstitution in a T-B NK SCID patient.
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3/13. Prenatal T-cell reconstitution after in utero transplantation with fetal liver cells in a patient with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.

    OBJECTIVE: Fetuses with severe combined immunodeficiency may be treated with intrauterine transplantation of fetal hematopoietic stem cells. In previous reports on intrauterine transplantation with T-cell-depleted bone marrow, repeated injections have led to partial immunoreconstitution at birth, with subnormal T-cell counts and a delayed response to mitogens. STUDY DESIGN: A male fetus with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency because of a stop mutation in the gene encoding the common gamma chain of cytokine receptors was transplanted in week 14 of gestation with a single injection of 7 x 10(7) cryopreserved nucleated fetal liver cells (9 x 10(8) cells per estimated kilogram fetal weight) into the fetal abdomen. At 24 and 33 weeks of gestational age, fetal blood samples were taken to detect evidence of engraftment. Fetal mixed chimerism was determined using polymerase chain reaction amplification of a variable number of tandem repeats and was verified by genomic HLA class II typing and flow cytometry. RESULTS: The course of pregnancy, delivery, and the first 18 months of life have been uncomplicated. At week 24 of gestation, donor HLA class II alleles were detected at a low level in the background of the recipient's fetal HLA genotype. The chimeric proportion of donor cells was about 10% at 24 weeks of gestation, increasing to 50% at 33 weeks of gestation. Whereas the T-cell fraction was still markedly reduced in week 24, it increased thereafter and was in the normal range from week 33 of gestation. in vitro response to T-cell mitogens was normal from birth. CONCLUSION: In utero transplantation of cryopreserved fetal liver cells in week 14 of gestation with a single injection led to complete T- and NK-cell reconstitution at birth. Signs of engraftment were found already in week 24 of gestation. We consider intrauterine transplantation a valuable experimental method and a useful adjunct to postnatal transplantation and gene therapy in the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency.
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4/13. Multilineage hematopoietic engraftment after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation without conditioning in SCID patients.

    Successful stem cell transplantation for patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) from matched family donors without conditioning results in engraftment of T lymphocytes. B lymphocytes engraft in only 50% of the cases, while myelopoiesis and erythropoiesis remain of host origin. Full hematopoietic engraftment was reported in one case after bone marrow transplantation without conditioning for a SCID patient. We studied three SCID patients who were transplanted with unmodified mobilized peripheral blood from HLA-identical family sex-mismatched members. They received megadoses of stem cells (18-23 x 10(6)CD34/kg). In contrast to the expected mixed chimerism that usually occurs in the absence of conditioning, we found in our patients 100% donor cell engraftment based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and microsatellite techniques. Subset analysis of the engrafted cells using a multiparametric system enabling a combined analysis of morphology, immunophenotyping and FISH showed that both T and B lymphocytes and myeloid cells were of donor origin in two patients, while T lymphocytes and myeloid cells were of donor origin in the third. In the two cases with ABO incompatibility, erythroid engraftment was evidenced by blood group conversion from recipient to donor type. Multilineage donor engraftment is possible in SCID patients even without conditioning.
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5/13. Treatment of donor T cell-mediated hematopoietic suppression after haploidentical bone marrow transplantation by T cell modulation in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    An 8-month-old male patient with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome was transplanted with maternal, haploidentical T cell-depleted bone marrow without prior conditioning therapy. Acute graft-versus-host disease developed 2 weeks post bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and was successfully treated with cortisone. After cortisone withdrawal the patient developed myeloid and B cell depression concomitant with T cell activation. For specific T cell modulation, treatment with the T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta chain-binding MoAb BMA031 was initiated in combination with cyclosporin A. GM-CSF was given to enhance myeloid reconstitution. About 1 year post BMT, B cell and granulocyte counts were within the normal range with stable chimerism in both lineages. B cell proliferation tests were normal and first signs of in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis occurred.
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6/13. Novel adopted immunotherapy for mixed chimerism after unrelated cord blood transplantation in Omenn syndrome.

    Omenn syndrome is a variant form of severe combined immunodeficiency. It is fatal unless treated by allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), which is the only curative approach. However, both treatment-related complications and graft rejection are major obstacles to treatment success. This report describes a case with Omenn syndrome who developed mixed chimerism after unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT). This case was successfully treated by altering the patient's immunosuppression and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) with donor cord blood-derived activated CD4 T cells ex vivo expanded from the cord blood cell residues in an infused bag. This novel development to expand CD4 t-lymphocytes from the donor cord blood unit for the use of DLI would serve as a useful method to overcome the risk of graft rejection in SCT for primary immunodeficiency disorders with residual cell-mediated immunity without compounding graft-vs.-host disease, especially in the UCBT setting.
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7/13. Successful unrelated mismatched cord blood transplantation in an infant with severe combined immunodeficiency and mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin disease.

    The case reported here of an infant who presented with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, CD4 lymphopenia, and hypogammaglobulinemia attributable to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This report discussed treatment of mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin disease with unrelated cord blood transplantation in addition to antituberculous therapy, by adoptively transferring donor immunity with induction of mixed chimerism. Because of the unique nature of umbilical cord blood hematopoietic cells, engraftment without conditioning may be possible in SCID patients without fully matched donors.
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8/13. Serial transplantation resulting in tolerance to an unrelated cord blood graft.

    Unrelated cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic stem cells were serially transplanted into two human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings with T cell, B cell, natural killer cell severe combined immunodeficiency. Brother A received a 4/6-matched, HLA DRbeta1-identical but class I-disparate UCB graft after myeloablative dosages of busulfan, melphalan, and antithymocyte globulin. He experienced complete donor chimerism, severe acute gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and limited chronic skin GVHD that resolved with treatment. Two years later, brother B received unfractionated marrow from brother A after reduced-intensity conditioning with cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte globulin. Brother B experienced mixed-donor (i.e. original UCB) chimerism and no histologically documented GVHD. Both brothers are clinically well; brother A is in a fully immunologically reconstituted state. The uneventful course and progressive increase in donor chimerism after the second transplantation indicates that hematopoietic cells derived from the older brother's marrow engrafted without causing GVHD, suggesting that acquired tolerance to disparate unrelated hla antigens was achieved.
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9/13. chimerism in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency: a case report.

    severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) represents a group of rare, sometimes fatal, congenital disorders in which there is a combined absence of T-lymphocyte and B-lymphocyte function. Children with SCID die within two years of age, if untreated. The effective treatment for SCID is a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It has been repeatedly described that in peripheral blood of infants with SCID maternal T cells can be found. Here we report a case of blood chimerism in a one-year-old boy with SCID.
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10/13. Evidence for engraftment of donor-type multipotent CD34 cells in a patient with selective T-lymphocyte reconstitution after bone marrow transplantation for B-SCID.

    Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID), a heterogeneous group of disorders of infancy, are fatal without treatment directed at immunologic reconstitution. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT), which is such a treatment presents some unique features in SCID, especially when T-lymphocyte-depleted HLA haploidentical allografts are used. Donor-type T lymphopoiesis, less often B lymphopoiesis, develops, whereas myelopoiesis remains the recipient-type. Little is known about the engrafting cells in this peculiar lymphohematopoietic chimerism and the pathophysiology of the frequent failure of B-lymphocyte reconstitution. To address these issues, we purified CD34 BM cells from a patient with selective T-lymphocyte reconstitution after HLA haploidentical BMT for B-SCID. Phenotypic analysis of CD34 cells was performed by flow cytometry, and functional studies of donor- and recipient-type CD34 cells were performed in vitro. Donor-type CD34 cells, constituting approximately 2% of the CD34 cells, were detected; both CD34 HLA-DR- cells and CD34 cells coexpressing B-(CD10 and CD19) and T-(CD2 and CD7) lymphocyte-associated cell surface molecules. Donor-type CD34 cells coexpressing myeloid-associated molecules (CD13, CD14, CD15, and CD33) were undetectable. However, donor-type CD34 myeloid progenitors could be shown in functional assays. Recipient-type CD34 cells coexpressing B- and T-lymphocyte- as well as myeloid-associated molecules were detected, but recipient-type CD34 cells could not be driven into T-lymphocyte differentiation in vitro. These findings provide evidence for engraftment of multipotent stem cells in our patient with B-SCID. Furthermore, the failure of B-lymphocyte reconstitution cannot be explained by lack of donor-type B-lymphocyte progenitors. Donor-type B lymphopoiesis and myelopoiesis are prevented by an unidentified mechanism.
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