Cases reported "Shaken Baby Syndrome"

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1/11. Massive subdural haematomas in Menkes disease mimicking shaken baby syndrome.

    INTRODUCTION: Menkes disease is an X-linked inherited disorder of intestinal copper absorption resulting in copper deficiency. Cardinal features include hair abnormalities, facial dysmorphism, severe neurological impairment, hypothermia, arterial anomalies, bone abnormalities and a fatal outcome. CASE REPORT: We present a case of Menkes disease complicated by progressive macrocephaly following the development of massive subdural haematomas. These lesions associated with femoral metaphyseal spurs could be confused with nonaccidental injury such as that seen in the shaken baby syndrome. DISCUSSION: This case emphasises that Menkes disease, like glutaric aciduria type 1, should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained subdural haematomas and neurological deficits in infants.
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2/11. shaken baby syndrome.

    shaken baby syndrome is a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality and is widely recognized in the medical literature. Classic signs include retinal hemorrhage, subdural or subarachnoid hemorrhage, and associated fractures. Most victims are younger than 6 months old and have been affected by violent shaking with rapid angular deceleration and possible terminal impact. This article summarizes issues related to clinical presentation, diagnosis, risk factors, and interventions for healthcare professionals.
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3/11. Shaking infant trauma induced by misuse of a baby chair.

    A 2 month old infant presented with bilateral subdural haemorrhages and bilateral subhyaloid haemorrhage. The parent admitted to forceful bouncing of the child in a baby rocker. Experiments showed that violent rocking in the chair could produce extreme alternating acceleration/deceleration forces in excess of those induced by shaking alone. Such handling could not be interpreted as accidental mismanagement and the abusive nature of the process was graphically shown in video recordings of the experiment. Prosecution resulted in a conviction for cruelty, and a suspended sentence.
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4/11. epiretinal membrane formation is a late manifestation of shaken baby syndrome.

    shaken baby syndrome is a constellation of injuries resulting from the intentional shaking type movement of a child who is usually younger than 3-years-old. This rapid acceleration-deceleration movement of the head is responsible for lesions attributed to shearing forces placed on the vitreoretinal structures and meningeal vessels across the dura. The ophthalmic findings include intraocular hemorrhages, perimacular retinal folds, and peripheral retinoschisis in the presence of intracranial injuries such as subdural hematomas without obvious external signs of head trauma. We describe a case of late development of an epiretinal membrane in a child with a history of shaken baby syndrome and propose a differential diagnosis list for epiretinal membrane formation in the pediatric age group.
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5/11. Cortical hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in shaken-baby (shaken impact) syndrome: value of diffusion-weighted MRI.

    Shaken-baby syndrome (SBS) is a type of child abuse caused by violent shaking of an infant, with or without impact, and characterized by subdural hematomas, retinal hemorrhages, and occult bone fractures. Parenchymal brain lesions in SBS may be missed or underestimated on CT scans, but can be detected at an earlier stage with diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) as areas of restricted diffusion. We demonstrate the value of DW-MRI in a 2-month-old baby boy with suspected SBS. The pattern of diffusion abnormalities indicates that the neuropathology of parenchymal lesions in SBS is due to hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries, and not to diffuse axonal injury.
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6/11. shaken baby syndrome manifesting as chronic subdural hematoma: importance of single photon emission computed tomography for treatment indications--case report.

    A boy with shaken baby syndrome first presented at age 3 months with acute subdural hematoma (SDH) and was treated by subdural tapping at a local hospital. Chronic SDH was identified at a rehabilitation center at age 19 months. The chronic SDH appeared to have developed within the preceding 16 months. His physical and mental development was already delayed. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a 20-mm thick right chronic SDH with midline shift and small bilateral subdural effusions. The chronic SDH had compressed the right cerebral hemisphere. MR imaging also disclosed bilateral cerebral atrophy. 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the non-hematoma hemisphere, although CBF is said to decrease on the chronic SDH side, especially if midline shift is present. Burr hole craniotomy with external drainage was performed, but the patient showed no change in CBF postoperatively, although the volume of hematoma decreased. The patient was clinically unchanged immediately after the operation. In this case, SPECT measurement of CBF was important in evaluating the pathophysiology of the delays in physical and mental growth. atrophy of the bilateral hemispheres was the major mechanism in the decreased CBF, not the compression by chronic SDH. MR imaging and SPECT can determine the surgical indications for chronic SDH in patients with cortical atrophy.
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7/11. Minimally invasive management of a traumatic artery aneurysm resulting from shaken baby syndrome.

    Based on our review of the literature, we present the first use of coiling in an infant with a traumatic artery aneurysm that resulted from shaken baby syndrome. Computed tomography (CT) scans showed a skull fracture, hemorrhagic subdural collections, multiple parenchymal contusions, and intraventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhages in a 3-week-old infant who presented with lethargy, poor feeding, and seizure. These multiple injuries were consistent with shaken baby syndrome. After closed-head injury medical management, including subdural taps, the baby was discharged home. When increasing seizures and hydrocephalus developed 8 months later, CT angiographic scans showed a pseudoaneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery. We successfully occluded the aneurysm with pushable coils placed via a microcatheter and treated the obstructive hydrocephalus with endoscopic third ventriculostomy. We show that minimally invasive radiological and surgical techniques may be effective in managing the sequelae of trauma in children.
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8/11. Normal computerized tomography of brain in children with shaken baby syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the clinical presentation and clinical course of shaken baby syndrome (SBS) with normal cranial computerized tomography (CT) on admission and to suggest further diagnostic procedures in such circumstances. methods: Using a worldwide listserv designed to facilitate discussion in the field of child abuse and neglect, we solicited case information for children hospitalized in different medical centers, who were diagnosed with SBS and had a normal CT scan on admission. RESULTS: Nine cases were identified. While all children had an abnormal neurologic examination on admission, eight had a normal CT, and one had "widening of cranial sutures." In four cases, subdural hemorrhage was diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 3 to 7 days after admission. Five children had bone fractures. The neurological outcome was normal in four of nine cases. Five children had long-term neurologic damage. The diagnosis of SBS was supported by either perpetrator confession, characteristic evolution of brain abnormalities on CT or MRI, inconsistent or absent explanatory history, and/or other social risk factors. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of SBS can be established even when brain CT is normal on admission. The documentation of retinal hemorrhages is of primary importance in establishing the diagnosis of SBS in these cases.
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9/11. Perpetrator accounts in infant abusive head trauma brought about by a shaking event.

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze perpetrator and medical evidence collected during investigations of infant abusive head trauma (IAHT), with a view to (a) identifying cases where injuries were induced by shaking in the absence of any impact and (b) documenting the response of infant victims to a violent shaking event. METHOD: A retrospective study was undertaken of IAHT cases investigated by the queensland police Service over a 10-year period. Cases of head trauma involving subdural and/or subarachnoid hematoma and retinal hemorrhages, in the absence of any evidence of impact, were defined as shaking-induced. Perpetrator statements were then examined for further evidence to support the shaking hypothesis and for descriptions of the victim's immediate response to a shaking event. RESULTS: From a total of 52 serious IAHT cases, 13 (25%) were found to have no medical or observer evidence of impact. In 5 of those 13 cases, there was a statement by the perpetrator to the effect that the victim was subjected to a shaking event. In several cases both with and without evidence of associated impact, perpetrator accounts described an immediate neurological response on the part of the victim. CONCLUSION: The study confirms that IAHT resulting in death or serious neurological impairment can be induced by shaking alone. In cases where the infant's medical condition was adequately described, the symptoms of head injury presented immediately.
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10/11. Findings in older children with abusive head injury: does shaken-child syndrome exist?

    Shaken-baby syndrome (SBS) has been hypothesized to occur after shaking by an adult during the first 2 years of life. We wondered whether it is possible to achieve rotational forces sufficient to cause SBS-like injuries in children >2 years of age. The present study describes cases of child abuse in older children who presented with the classic ophthalmologic and intracranial findings of SBS. In this case series, 4 cases of older children (2.5-7 years old; 11.8-22 kg) who died from abusive head injuries and who had diffuse retinal hemorrhages identified antemortem were selected for review. The cases were abstracted from hospital charts, records from autopsies, coroners' and district attorneys' offices, and court transcripts. In all 4 cases the history provided by the primary caregiver did not match the severity of the injuries. Three case subjects presented with patterned bruises. Multilayered retinal hemorrhages and acute subdural hematoma were observed in all 4 cases. At autopsy, diffuse axonal injury was evident in 3 of the 4 cases; all 4 cases had optic nerve sheath hemorrhages. None of the victims had skeletal fractures on radiologic examination or at autopsy. This case series demonstrates that it is possible to observe SBS-like retinal and central nervous system findings in the older and heavier child. Our findings underscore the need for providers to consider intentional shaking as a mechanism of injury in the evaluation of abusive head injury in older children.
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