Cases reported "Shock"

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1/47. Vasopressin effective in reversing catecholamine-resistant vasodilatory shock.

    A patient with perforated appendicitis developed progressive vasodilatory shock which was complicated by perioperative acute myocardial infarction. Cardiovascular support included dopamine infusion, and later, intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation balloon pump and noradrenaline and dobutamine infusion. Vasopressin was introduced as a final attempt to reverse the refractory shock and was associated with recovery. The experience with this case suggests that vasopressin may be a valuable adjunct to the treatment of catecholamine-resistant vasodilatory shock.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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2/47. shock and dyspnea after cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a case of iatrogenic gastric rupture.

    Rupture of the stomach is a rarely reported complication of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The number of cases reported in the literature since 1970 does not exceed 30. We present a recent case of a young woman submitted to cardiopulmonary resuscitation in whom a gastric rupture gave rise to massive pneumoperitoneum with haemodynamic shock and respiratory failure. Major distension of the abdomen and an extensive subcutaneous emphysema were present. After re-establishing the haemodynamic conditions and a diagnostic spiral thoracic-abdomen CT scan, an emergency laparoptomy was performed. We found two linear defects of the lesser curvature of the stomach, which were treated by closure with a primary interrupted two-layer suture. The postoperative recovery was uneventful. Iatrogenic gastric rupture carries a high risk of mortality. A prompt diagnosis and emergency surgical repair are essential for patient survival.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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3/47. Crohn's disease presenting as life-threatening ileal bleeding.

    We report a case of Crohn's disease in a 32-year old Saudi male. The disease presented with severe, life-threatening ileal bleeding necessitating an urgent laparotomy and 100 cm of ileum and ascending colon was resected. The bleeding source was several ulcers in an inflamed ileum and histopathologic examination revealed typical findings of Crohn's disease with a chronic, transmural inflammation, non-caseating granuloma and the Ziehl-Neelsen stain was negative. The postoperative course was uneventful. On follow-up he is doing well on medical treatment with mesalamine and substitution therapy with vitamin B12.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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4/47. Pancreatic pseudocysts complicated by splenic parenchymal involvement: results of operative and percutaneous management.

    Pancreatic pseudocysts are a common finding in acute and chronic pancreatitis, but most are small and uncomplicated, and do not require treatment. Pseudocysts with splenic parenchymal involvement are uncommon but have the potential for massive hemorrhage. Data on the clinical presentation and optimal treatment of this unusual complication of pseudocysts are lacking. The purpose of this review was to identify the clinical features of pancreatic pseudocysts complicated by splenic parenchymal involvement and to determine the outcome with nonoperative and operative therapy. methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of all patients with pancreatic pseudocysts from December 1984 to January 1999 revealed 238 patients, of whom 14 (6%) had splenic parenchymal involvement. These medical records were reviewed in detail and all pertinent radiographs were reviewed by the authors to confirm splenic parenchymal involvement by a pancreatic pseudocyst. RESULTS: Initial treatment included observation (n = 2), percutaneous drainage (n = 8), and surgery (n = 4). Of the eight patients treated by percutaneous drainage, one died, three required repeated percutaneous drainage, and three required surgical intervention. None of the patients treated primarily by surgery required additional therapy for the pseudocyst. overall, 11 patients had complications of the primary therapy, and 25% of patients treated by surgery had significant hemorrhage. Complications included infection (n = 5), pseudocyst persistence (n = 4), bleeding (n = 2), multisystem organ failure (n = 2), gastric outlet obstruction (n = 1), and splenic rupture (n = 2). CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic pseudocysts complicated by splenic parenchymal involvement may have life-threatening clinical presentations and respond poorly to percutaneous drainage. Distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy are effective, but the complication rate is high.
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ranking = 6
keywords = operative
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5/47. An expanding role for cardiopulmonary bypass in trauma.

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze experience at the McGill University health Centre with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in trauma, complemented by a review of the literature to define its role globally and outline indications for its expanded use in trauma management. DATA SOURCES: All available published English-language articles from peer reviewed journals, located using the medline database. Chapters from relevant, current textbooks were also utilized. STUDY SELECTION: Nine relevant case reports, original articles or reviews pertaining to the use of CPB in trauma. DATA EXTRACTION: Original data as well as authors' opinions pertinent to the application of CPB to trauma were extracted, incorporated and appropriately referenced in our review. DATA SYNTHESIS: overall mortality in the selected series of CPB used in the trauma setting was 44.4%. Four of 5 survivors had CPB instituted early (first procedure in operative management) whereas 3 of 4 deaths involved late institution of CPB. CONCLUSIONS: Although CPB has traditionally been used in the setting of cardiac trauma alone, a better understanding of its potential benefit in noncardiac injuries will likely make for improved outcomes in the increasingly diverse number of severely injured patients seen in trauma centres today. Further studies by other trauma centres will allow for standardized indications for the use of CPB in trauma.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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6/47. Mucosal lesions in the human small intestine in shock.

    Characteristic mucosal lesions in resected small intestinal segments from seven patients are reported. Preoperatively, four patients were in shock and general hypotension while the three remaining cases showed signs of local intestinal hypotension. The microscopic appearance of the mucosal lesions was in all patients identical with that previously observed in the feline and canine small intestine after haemorrhage or local intestinal hypotension. It is proposed that an extravascular short-circuiting of oxygen in the mucosal countercurrent exchanger and an intravascular aggregation of blood cells might produce tissue hypoxia which makes the mucosa vulnerable to enzymatic degradation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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7/47. Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy related to profound shock after penetrating thoracoabdominal trauma.

    Ischemic optic neuropathy is a rare cause of blindness reported most commonly in association with collagen-vascular diseases, infectious processes, and systemic hypotension related to massive exsanguinating hemorrhage. We report what we believe to be the first case of posterior ischemic optic neuropathy due to perioperative hypotension in a patient who had a penetrating thoracoabdominal injury with massive hemorrhage, severe hypotension, massive microcapillary circulatory leak, multiple system organ failure, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although the incidence of postoperative visual loss is low (-0.002%), awareness of this entity must be raised within the trauma surgical community.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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8/47. Curling's ulcer: a rare condition.

    A case of Curling's ulceration of the duodenum in a child with 50 per cent burns, requiring operative arrest of the bleeding, is reported, and this condition is reviewed. Inquiry among the surgical units treating burns in Great Britian showed that only 18 cases of alimentary bleeding had been seen in the course of treating some 32 500 patients. The incidence in europe and australia appears to be of the same order, but there is a much higher incidence in some burns units in north america. Possible reasons for these differences are examined. The occurrence and treatment of Curling's ulcer in childhood are considered.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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9/47. diagnosis and localization of pheochromocytoma.

    This hypertension Grand Rounds shows how applying new clinical laboratory techniques helped to diagnose pheochromocytoma in a difficult case. In the setting of long-standing, sustained hypertension, the patient had a hypertensive paroxysm during anesthesia induction for surgery, leading to suspicion of a pheochromocytoma. Conventional testing, including CT scanning and fractionated urinary metanephrine test, was not diagnostic. The patient had another hypertensive paroxysm during subsequent anesthesia induction, requiring intensive care. Consistently elevated plasma levels of free normetanephrine provided the first and only biochemical evidence for a pheochromocytoma in this case. 6-[18F]Fluorodopamine positron emission tomography and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy subsequently agreed on the existence of a small left adrenal mass, which when removed surgically proved to be a pheochromocytoma. Postoperatively, plasma levels of normetanephrine normalized, and there were no further hypertensive paroxysms, although the patient remained hypertensive. This case illustrates the superiority of plasma levels of free (unconjugated) metanephrines, compared with other biochemical tests, to detect pheochromocytoma. It also confirms that functional imaging by 6-[18F]fluorodopamine or 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scanning can localize pheochromocytoma in difficult cases in which other imaging tests are not diagnostic.
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ranking = 1
keywords = operative
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10/47. Prolonged cardiovascular collapse due to unrecognized latex anaphylaxis.

    We present a case of a prolonged anaphylactic reaction that occurred in temporal relationship to the administration of cefazolin. Subsequent allergy testing was positive for latex and negative for cefazolin-both unexpected results. Our case illustrates that medications administered before the onset of anaphylaxis should not be assumed to be the causative allergen and that a latex allergy should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Because the etiology of an anaphylactic reaction cannot be immediately determined, patients experiencing intraoperative cardiovascular collapse should be treated in a latex-free environment. IMPLICATIONS: We describe a patient who experienced latex-induced intraoperative anaphylaxis. The event coincided with antibiotic administration, which prompted us to erroneously assume that the causative allergen was medication related. Allergy to latex must always be considered as a potential culprit of perioperative cardiovascular collapse.
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ranking = 3
keywords = operative
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