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1/3. Seroconversion to simian immunodeficiency virus in two laboratory workers.

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are lentiviruses that cause acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-like illnesses in susceptible macaque monkeys and are used in the study of AIDS (1). In November 1988, CDC published guidelines to minimize the risk of SIV transmission to research laboratory workers (2). This report summarizes the investigation of two laboratory workers who seroconverted following occupational exposures to SIV. ( info)

2/3. Isolation of a simian immunodeficiency virus related to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 from a west African pet sooty mangabey.

    Two of 25 healthy pet sooty mangabey (SM) monkeys (cercocebus atys) living in West africa were seropositive by immunoblot when surveyed for antibody to simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIVmac). SIVsmLIB1 was isolated from one of the pet sooty mangabeys. Nucleotide sequence data showed that this isolate is a member of the SIVsm/human immunodeficiecy virus type 2 (hiv-2)/SIVmac group of primate lentiviruses. Furthermore, sequence comparisons revealed extensive genetic diversity among SIVsm isolates similar to that observed previously in SIV isolates from naturally infected African green monkeys. These observations provide additional evidence for monkey-human cross-species transmission of SIVsm as the source of hiv-2 infection of human. ( info)

3/3. Natural infection of a household pet red-capped mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) with a new simian immunodeficiency virus.

    A seroprevalence survey was conducted for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) antibody in household pet monkeys in gabon. Twenty-nine monkeys representing seven species were analyzed. By using human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (hiv-2)/SIVsm, SIVmnd, and SIVagm antigens, one red-capped mangabey (RCM) (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) was identified as harboring SIV-cross-reactive antibodies. A virus isolate, termed SIVrcm, was subsequently established from this seropositive RCM by cocultivation of its peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with PBMC from seronegative humans or RCMs. SIVrcm was also isolated by cocultivation of CD8-depleted RCM PBMC with Molt 4 clone 8 cells but not with CEMx174 cells. The lack of growth in CEMx174 cells distinguished this new SIV from all previously reported sooty mangabey-derived viruses (SIVsm), which grow well in this cell line. SIVrcm was also successfully transmitted (cell free) to human and rhesus PBMC as well as to Molt 4 clone 8 cells. To determine the evolutionary origins of this newly identified virus, subgenomic pol (475 bp) and gag (954 bp) gene fragments were amplified from infected cell culture dna and sequenced. The position of SIVrcm relative to those of members of the other primate lentivirus lineages was then examined in evolutionary trees constructed from deduced protein sequences. This analysis revealed significantly discordant phylogenetic positions of SIVrcm in the two genomic regions. In trees derived from partial gag sequences, SIVrcm clustered independently from all other HIV and SIV strains, consistent with a new primate lentivirus lineage. However, in trees derived from pol sequences, SIVrcm grouped with the hiv-1/SIVcpz lineage. These findings suggest that the SIVrcm genome is mosaic and possibly is the result of a recombination event involving divergent lentiviruses in the distant past. Further analysis of this and other SIVrcm isolates may shed new light on the origin of hiv-1. ( info)

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