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1/2. Emergent decompressive craniectomy in patients with fixed dilated pupils due to cerebral venous and dural sinus thrombosis: report of three cases.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Cerebral venous and dural sinus thrombosis is a rare cause of stroke. Although morbidity and mortality have greatly decreased in recent years as a result of early diagnosis and timely medical treatment, when coma occurs the prognosis remains poor. We evaluated whether emergent decompressive craniectomy has a role in the treatment of patients with brain herniation from dural sinus thrombosis and hemorrhagic infarct. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Three patients developed large hemorrhagic infarct with coma and bilaterally fixed and dilated pupils resulting from aseptic dural sinus thrombosis. INTERVENTION: Two patients underwent emergent surgical decompression as soon as brain herniation developed, and these patients had complete functional recovery. One underwent delayed surgical decompression and remained severely disabled. CONCLUSION: Our results provide preliminary evidence that emergent decompressive craniectomy is effective in patients with brain herniation from dural sinus thrombosis, provided that the clinical onset is recent. We therefore recommend consideration of this aggressive surgical technique for such patients, who may survive with good outcomes.
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2/2. neuroblastoma and venous sinus thrombosis in an adult patient.

    A 35-year-old woman developed symptoms consistent with intracranial venous sinus occlusions that were demonstrated by MR angiography. After a few weeks of anticoagulant therapy, she became paraplegic due to haemorrhages in the caudal spinal canal. A decompressive laminectomy did not improve her neurological deficits. Up to this point, we assumed her condition to be caused solely by the intracranial venous thrombosis and complications of the treatment. A tumour diagnosis had so far not been considered. A few months later she became tetraplegic. MRI revealed fresh bleeding in the upper spinal cord and a dissemination of tumour along the entire craniospinal axis. biopsy specimens obtained from the spinal canal contained tumour cells with the characteristics of neuroblastoma.
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