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1/389. Subdural empyema and blindness due to cavernous sinus thrombosis in acute frontal sinusitis.

    In this era of antibiotics, the complications of acute sinusitis are much less frequently encountered. Although orbital complications are most common, intracranial complications carry a high rate of mortality and morbidity. We describe a case of acute frontal sinusitis with subdural empyema and blindness due to cavernous sinus thrombosis and carotid artery thrombosis with a discussion of treatment of these complications and the etiology of blindness in sinusitis.
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2/389. Endovascular recanalization with balloon angioplasty and stenting of an occluded occipital sinus for treatment of intracranial venous hypertension: technical case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Dural sinus thrombosis can lead to intracranial venous hypertension and can be complicated by intracranial hemorrhage. We present a case report of a patient who underwent endovascular recanalization and stenting of a thrombosed occipital sinus. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 13-year-old patient with a history of chronic sinus thrombosis refractory to anticoagulant therapy presented with acute onset of aphasia and hemiparesis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed hydrocephalus and cerebral edema. angiography delineated multiple dural arteriovenous fistulae and persistent occlusion of the posterior sagittal, occipital, and bilateral transverse dural sinuses with retrograde cortical venous drainage. INTERVENTION: After embolization of the dural arteriovenous fistulae, a transvenous approach was used to recanalize and perform balloon angioplasty of the right internal jugular vein and the occipital and left transverse sinuses, resulting in subsequent clinical improvement. The patient's condition deteriorated 3 days later with reocclusion of both balloon-dilated sinuses. Repeat angioplasty and then deployment of an endovascular stent in the occipital sinus were performed, and reestablishment of venous outflow was achieved, resulting in a decrease of intracranial venous pressure from 41 to 14 mm Hg and neurological improvement. At the 3-month follow-up examination, the stented occipital sinus remained patent and served as the only conduit for extracranial venous outflow; the patient remained neurologically intact at the 12-month follow-up examination. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of mechanical recanalization, balloon angioplasty, and stent deployment in the occipital sinus to provide sustained venous outflow for the treatment of venous hypertension with retrograde cortical venous drainage in a patient with dural pansinus thrombosis refractory to anticoagulant therapy.
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3/389. Spontaneous dural sinus thrombosis in children.

    The clinical course of spontaneous dural sinus thrombosis in children varies from indolent to fulminant. Although many different etiologies for the development of dural sinus thrombosis have been described, a full recovery can be anticipated in most children following rehydration and the administration of systemic antibiotics. steroids, systemic anticoagulation and intrasinus thrombolysis may be beneficial in selected patients, although the efficacy of these therapies has not been established prospectively in children. We reviewed 12 pediatric patients with spontaneous dural sinus thrombosis (1978-1998) to determine the etiology, clinical course and best treatment options. In the absence of a hypercoagulable state, pediatric patients generally recover well with rehydration and antibiotics and do not require anticoagulation.
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4/389. Rapid thrombectomy of superior sagittal sinus and transverse sinus thrombosis with a rheolytic catheter device.

    Thrombosis of the dural venous sinuses is a potentially lethal condition that remains a diagnostic dilemma. Clinical outcome is typically dependent on the timeliness of diagnosis and definitive treatment. We report a case of successful rapid thrombectomy of extensive thrombus within the superior sagittal and transverse sinuses using a rheolytic catheter device. This appears to be a promising treatment option, particularly in those patients who do not respond to other, more established, forms of therapy.
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5/389. Severe cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and dural arteriovenous fistula in an infant with protein s deficiency.

    A 12-month-old infant presented with cerebral seizures and neurological deficits. MRI scan of the brain and angiography showed massive cerebral venous sinus thrombosis complicated by a dural arteriovenous fistula. Subsequent clotting analysis revealed a protein s deficiency. Screening for inherited coagulation inhibitor deficiency is recommended in children with unexplained or atypical thrombotic events.
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6/389. Application of a rheolytic thrombectomy device in the treatment of dural sinus thrombosis: a new technique.

    We present a novel application of a transvascular rheolytic thrombectomy system in the treatment of symptomatic dural sinus thrombosis in a 54-year-old woman with somnolence and left-sided weakness. The diagnosis of bilateral transverse and superior sagittal sinus thrombosis was made and the patient was treated with anticoagulant therapy. After an initial period of improvement, she became comatose and hemiplegic 8 days after presentation. After excluding intracerebral hemorrhage by MR imaging, we performed angiography and transfemoral venous thrombolysis with a hydrodynamic thrombectomy catheter, followed by intrasinus urokinase thrombolytic therapy over the course of 2 days. This technique resulted in dramatic sinus thrombolysis and near total neurologic recovery. Six months after treatment, the patient showed mild cognitive impairment and no focal neurologic deficit. Our preliminary experience suggests that this technique may play a significant role in the endovascular treatment of this potentially devastating disease.
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7/389. prothrombin gene variant (G20210A) in a patient with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

    We describe a 33-year-old woman, who presented with lowered consciousness level and seizures, due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with venous haemorrhagic infarcts. The patient. who was taking oral contraceptives, appeared to be heterozygous for a prothrombin gene variant, which is due to a G-->A transition at position 20210. This 20210A prothrombin has recently been established as an important risk factor for cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, which interacts with oral contraceptive use.
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8/389. Endovascular thrombolysis for symptomatic cerebral venous thrombosis.

    OBJECT: The authors sought to treat potentially catastrophic intracranial dural and deep cerebral venous thrombosis by using a multimodality endovascular approach. methods: Six patients aged 14 to 75 years presented with progressive symptoms of thrombotic intracranial venous occlusion. Five presented with neurological deficits, and one patient had a progressive and intractable headache. All six had known risk factors for venous thrombosis: inflammatory bowel disease (two patients), nephrotic syndrome (one), cancer (one), use of oral contraceptive pills (one), and puerperium (one). Four had combined dural and deep venous thrombosis, whereas clot formation was limited to the dural venous sinuses in two patients. All patients underwent diagnostic cerebral arteriograms followed by transvenous catheterization and selective sinus and deep venous microcatheterization. Urokinase was delivered at the proximal aspect of the thrombus in dosages of 200,000 to 1,000,000 IU. In two patients with thrombus refractory to pharmacological thrombolytic treatment, mechanical wire microsnare maceration of the thrombus resulted in sinus patency. Radiological studies obtained 24 hours after thrombolysis reconfirmed sinus/vein patency in all patients. All patients' symptoms and neurological deficits improved, and no procedural complications ensued. Follow-up periods ranged from 12 to 35 months, and all six patients remain free of any symptomatic venous reocclusion. Factors including patients' age, preexisting medical conditions, and duration of symptoms had no statistical bearing on the outcome. CONCLUSIONS: patients with both dural and deep cerebral venous thrombosis often have a variable clinical course and an unpredictable neurological outcome. With recent improvements in interventional techniques, endovascular therapy is warranted in symptomatic patients early in the disease course, prior to morbid and potentially fatal neurological deterioration.
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ranking = 1.358829148434
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, deep
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9/389. Dural sinus thrombosis and pseudotumor cerebri: unexpected complications of suboccipital craniotomy and translabyrinthine craniectomy.

    OBJECT: The goal of this study was to document the hazards associated with pseudotumor cerebri resulting from transverse sinus thrombosis after tumor resection. Dural sinus thrombosis is a rare and potentially serious complication of suboccipital craniotomy and translabyrinthine craniectomy. pseudotumor cerebri may occur when venous hypertension develops secondary to outflow obstruction. Previous research indicates that occlusion of a single transverse sinus is well tolerated when the contralateral sinus remains patent. methods: The authors report the results in five of a total of 107 patients who underwent suboccipital craniotomy or translabyrinthine craniectomy for resection of a tumor. Postoperatively, these patients developed headache, visual obscuration, and florid papilledema as a result of increased intracranial pressure (ICP). In each patient, the transverse sinus on the treated side was thrombosed; patency of the contralateral sinus was confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Four patients required lumboperitoneal or ventriculoperitoneal shunts and one required medical treatment for increased ICP. All five patients regained their baseline neurological function after treatment. Techniques used to avoid thrombosis during surgery are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: First, the status of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses should be documented using MR venography before patients undergo posterior fossa surgery. Second, thrombosis of a transverse or sigmoid sinus may not be tolerated even if the sinus is nondominant; vision-threatening pseudotumor cerebri may result. Third, MR venography is a reliable, noninvasive means of evaluating the venous sinuses. Fourth, if the diagnosis is made shortly after thrombosis, then direct endovascular thrombolysis with urokinase may be a therapeutic option. If the presentation is delayed, then ophthalmological complications of pseudotumor cerebri can be avoided by administration of a combination of acetazolamide, dexamethasone, lumbar puncture, and possibly lumboperitoneal shunt placement.
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keywords = thrombosis
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10/389. sagittal sinus thrombosis associated with thrombocytopenia: a report of two patients.

    Reported are two patients presenting with both thrombocytopenia and sagittal sinus thrombosis. The first patient is a 42-month-old male with no identified thrombophilic risk factors who developed acute neurologic symptoms after an acute infection. The second patient is a 22-month-old female with no history of preceding infection but had a positive lupus anticoagulant test. She also developed deep venous thrombosis and was treated with intravenous heparin. Both patients are currently doing well without neurologic deficits. To the authors' knowledge the second patient is the youngest reported patient with cerebral vein thrombosis associated with thrombocytopenia and lupus anticoagulant. These observations call attention to the need for a thorough investigation of thrombophilic risk factors in pediatric patients with thrombotic complications.
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ranking = 1.169855013708
keywords = thrombosis, venous thrombosis, deep
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