Cases reported "Skin Diseases, Bacterial"

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1/7. Traditions, anthrax, and children.

    anthrax is sporadically seen in turkey, especially among people who live in rural areas and who come in contact with animals. Two siblings with cutaneous anthrax are described in this report. A week before their admission to the hospital, contaminated cow's blood was smeared on their foreheads as part of a traditional ritual. Both children were successfully treated with crystalline penicillin. In developing countries, traditions such as blood smearing may be an important factor in the transmission of anthrax to children.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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2/7. Cutaneous anthrax associated with facial palsy: case report and literature review.

    BACKGROUND: anthrax is primarily an animal disease. bacillus anthracis, the causal agent in anthrax, is a Gram-positive rod. humans can acquire anthrax by industrial exposure to infected animals or animal products. methods: Reported here is the case of a 48-year-old male farm worker from iran with a history of direct contact with herds. He presented after 6 days of fever with toxicity and a crusted ulcer on the face that was later confirmed bacteriologically to be cutaneous anthrax. He was treated with large doses of intravenous penicillin and corticosteroids along with multiple subcutaneous epinephrine injections that were used to control the infection and massive facial edema. RESULTS: After 14 days, he partially recovered; however, ipsilateral facial nerve palsy developed and persisted despite therapeutic efforts. CONCLUSION: It is not possible to conclude whether early diagnosis and treatment of anthrax results in a lower risk of complications. Facial palsy can be added to the list of variable complications of the cutaneous effects of anthrax.
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ranking = 3
keywords = animal
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3/7. Treatment of refractory disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection with interferon gamma. A preliminary report.

    BACKGROUND. Studies conducted in vitro and in animals suggest that cytokine signals to monocytes or macrophages by interferon gamma are important in the containment and clearance of disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. methods. We studied seven patients with refractory, disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections who were not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Three patients were from a family predisposed to the development of mycobacterium avium complex infections; four patients had idiopathic CD4 T-lymphocytopenia. Their infections were culture- or biopsy-proved, involved at least two organ systems, and had been treated with the maximal tolerated medical therapy. Cellular proliferation, cytokine production, and phagocyte function were assessed in peripheral-blood cells. Interferon gamma was administered subcutaneously two or three times weekly in a dose of 25 to 50 micrograms per square meter of body-surface area in addition to antimycobacterial medications. Clinical effects were monitored by cultures, biopsies, radiographs, and in one patient a change in the need for paracentesis. RESULTS. In response to phytohemagglutinin, the production of interferon gamma by mononuclear cells from the patients was lower than in normal subjects (P < 0.001), whereas stimulation with ionomycin and phorbol myristate acetate led to normal production of interferon gamma in the patients. Within eight weeks of the start of interferon gamma therapy, all seven patients had marked clinical improvement, with abatement of fever, clearing of many lesions and quiescence of others, radiographic improvement, and a reduction in the need for paracentesis. CONCLUSIONS. Interferon gamma in combination with conventional therapy may be effective for some cases of refractory disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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4/7. Bacillus piliformis infection (Tyzzer's disease) in a patient infected with hiv-1: confirmation with 16S ribosomal rna sequence analysis.

    Bacillus piliformis is a long, rod-shaped bacterium that has never been grown in cell-free medium and whose taxonomic classification is uncertain. B. piliformis is the causative agent of Tyzzer's disease, which is frequently reported in laboratory, wild, and domesticated animals. The spectrum and severity of this disease is wide in animals. Although many infections are rapidly fatal, subclinical infections are also common. To date, there have been no reports of B. piliformis infection in human beings, although elevated antibody levels have been reported in pregnant women. We describe the first case of human B. piliformis infection, in a man with hiv-1 infection and chronic, localized, crusted verrucous lesions. The diagnosis was confirmed by ribosomal rna sequencing. The spectrum of organisms leading to infection and the spectrum of diseases caused by these organisms continue to expand, as new infections are identified and as patients with hiv-1 live longer with more severe immune suppression. The extreme difficulty in culturing B. piliformis and the lack of clinical and histopathologic experience with this organism in human beings mean that B. piliformis is potentially another infectious agent to be considered in human beings. Also, when an infectious organism is a strong clinical consideration, silver stains may be of use when results of routine bacterial staining are negative.
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ranking = 2
keywords = animal
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5/7. Extraordinary case report: cutaneous anthrax.

    anthrax is a very rare disease in the United Kingdom. It is caused by the spore-forming bacterium bacillus anthracis. humans become infected when they come into contact with infected animals or their products. Cutaneous anthrax, the most common form of the disease, accounts for 95% of cases, and the disease usually developing on exposed sites. We present a patient who developed cutaneous disease after exposure to untreated leather. Owing to the initial clinical information, the biopsy specimen was misinterpreted as representing a severe acute insect bite reaction. The subsequent involvement by the Department of microbiology established the correct diagnosis. Because today the disease is so rare in europe and the united states, sporadic cases of anthrax are easily overlooked as the diagnosis often is not considered. Cutaneous anthrax should be considered in any patient with a painless ulcer with vesicles, edema, and a history of exposure to animals or animal products.
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ranking = 3
keywords = animal
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6/7. Cutaneous manifestations of anthrax in rural haiti.

    In industrialized countries, the zoonotic disease anthrax has been virtually eradicated because of effective public health measures including animal vaccination and quality control of animal products. In developing parts of the world, however, anthrax remains an occupational hazard of herdsmen and workers who have direct contact with infected animals or who process animal hides, hair, bone and bone products, and wool. For clinicians unfamiliar with this interesting infectious disease, the major dermatologic characteristics and clinical evolution of five cases of cutaneous anthrax are reviewed in this study in both descriptive and photographic forms, to define the clinical spectrum of cutaneous disease.
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ranking = 4
keywords = animal
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7/7. erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae: an uncommon but ever present zoonosis.

    erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is an important animal pathogen with a worldwide distribution, yet this zoonotic infection is rarely reported in humans. Three cases of E. rhusiopathiae infection, which illustrate the varied clinical presentations of this pathogen in humans, are presented together with the pathological findings and treatment regimens.
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ranking = 1
keywords = animal
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