Cases reported "Skin Diseases, Genetic"

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1/2. Cole disease: hypopigmentation with punctate keratosis of the palms and soles.

    Cole disease is an uncommon disorder characterized by distinctive cutaneous hypopigmentation and punctate keratosis of the palms and soles. It is a congenital skin disease with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. We report two patients from a family with 15 members, 5 of whom were affected. One of the patients had both types of lesions since birth, while in the other they arose in the first months of life. We studied the pedigree, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy findings of the hypopigmented macules with the patients' normal skin used as a control. The pedigree showed involvement of both genders, with a Mendelian autosomal dominant inheritance pattern with phenotypic variability in the family. immunohistochemistry showed a reduction in the melanin pigment in the keratinocytes and normal pigmentation in the melanocytes. Ultrastructural studies showed a strong contrast between the large number of melanosomes in the body and dendrites of the melanocytes, in contrast with the small number of these organelles in the neighboring keratinocytes. These findings suggest that this disease is a primary congenital disorder of the transfer mechanisms of the melanosomes from melanocytes to keratinocytes in hypopigmented lesions, associated with abnormal epidermopoiesis in the punctate hyperkeratosis.
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2/2. A case of erythrokeratoderma variabilis: loosened gap junctions in the acanthotic epidermis.

    A 15-year-old Japanese female without contributory personal or family medical history had demonstrated irregular, keratotic plaques in the lower extremities since infancy that had been gradually enlarging. The keratotic plaques showed partial erythematous change, which altered shape over a relatively short period, leaving pigmentation. The biopsy specimen taken from the erythematous, keratotic plaque showed typical church-spire-like papillomatosis with acanthosis, and thickening of granular and horny layers. Gene analysis targeting connexin 30.3 and 31, based on the diagnosis of erythrokeratoderma variabilis, did not demonstrate any abnormality of these genes. However, ultrastructural observation disclosed an increased amount of gap junctions, some of which showed four layers on high-powered electron microscopy, suggesting loosened connection of the plasma membrane of the keratinocytes through the gap junctions. This loosened gap junction structure was also observed in a case of lamellar ichthyosis, examined as a reference. The disturbed cell-to-cell interaction through latent damage to the gap junctions may be related to the keratotic changes of the epidermis in these skin diseases.
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