Cases reported "Skin Diseases, Genetic"

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1/46. Variable presentation of rothmund-thomson syndrome.

    The recent finding that a subset of patients with rothmund-thomson syndrome (RTS) have mutations of a helicase gene has prompted reexamination of the phenotypes of individuals diagnosed with this disorder. We report on two patients with variable presentations of RTS. Initial presenting symptoms included growth deficiency and absent thumbs in one patient and osteogenic sarcoma and poikiloderma in the second patient. The growth-deficient patient was diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency and had a subnormal response to growth hormone supplementation. Neither malformations nor growth deficiency were present in the patient with osteogenic sarcoma, and her only other manifestation of RTS was poikiloderma. The diagnosis of RTS should be considered in all patients with osteogenic sarcoma, particularly if associated with skin changes. ( info)

2/46. Erythrokeratolysis hiemalis (keratolytic winter erythema): a case report from denmark.

    Erythrokeratolysis hiemalis is described as a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis as first reported from the Oudtshoorn district of Cape Provence in south africa, among European immigrant families. Sporadic cases have since been identified in other countries, often with a familial link to the Oudtshoorn cluster. We describe the first case observed in denmark, presumably the result of a spontaneous mutation. ( info)

3/46. The role of genetic testing and effect on patient care.

    The heralded report of the first draft of the human genome project highlights the role genetics plays in nearly all medical disciplines, including dermatology. Many inherited disorders have dermatological features, and dermatological pathologic conditions frequently can be traced to a genetic cause. Suspicion of a genetic disorder is often suggested first by a practitioner such as a dermatologist, who is likely to be the first to identify characteristic features of the disease. This review highlights the relationship between the clinician and genetics professional in genetic testing using a case example of a familial cancer syndrome, Cowden syndrome, as a model. ( info)

4/46. Exclusion of COL7A1 mutation in Kindler syndrome.

    We describe a patient with Kindler syndrome with an 18-year follow-up who was initially misdiagnosed as suffering from dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. The patient's skin showed broad reticulate labeling for collagen VII and reduplication of the lamina densa. Screening of this patient's dna excluded any pathogenic COL7A1 mutations. ( info)

5/46. genotype-phenotype correlation in skin fragility-ectodermal dysplasia syndrome resulting from mutations in plakophilin 1.

    We report a 42-year-old Japanese man with an unusual autosomal recessive genodermatosis. The clinical features comprised normal skin at birth, loss of scalp hair at 3-months of age after a febrile illness, progressive nail dystrophy during infancy, palmoplantar keratoderma starting around the age of 18 years and trauma-induced skin fragility and blisters noted from the age of 20 years. skin biopsy of rubbed non-lesional skin revealed widening of spaces between adjacent keratinocytes from the suprabasal layer upwards. Electron microscopy demonstrated a reduced number of hypoplastic desmosomes. Immunohistochemical labeling showed a reduction in intercellular staining for the desmosome component plakophilin 1. mutation analysis revealed a homozygous intron 11 donor splice site mutation in the plakophilin 1 gene, 2021 1 G>A (GenBank no. Z34974). RT-PCR, using rna extracted from the skin biopsy, provided evidence for residual low levels of the full-length wild-type transcript (approximately 8%) as well as multiple other near full-length transcripts, one of which was in frame leading to deletion of 17 amino acids from the 9th arm-repeat unit of the plakophilin 1 tail domain. Thus, the molecular findings help explain the clinical features in the patient, who has a similar but milder phenotype to previously reported patients with skin fragility-ectodermal dysplasia syndrome associated with complete ablation of plakophilin 1 (OMIM 604536). This new 'mitis' phenotype provides further clinicopathological evidence for the role of plakophilin 1 in keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion and ectodermal development. ( info)

6/46. Dowling-Degos disease associated with squamous cell carcinomas on the dappled pigmentation.

    We report the first case of Dowling-Degos disease associated with squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in the pigmented area of Dowling-Degos disease. A 64-year-old Japanese man manifested dappled pigmentation unusually localized to the buttocks, and two pigmented adenoid SCCs had developed on his left pigmented buttock. The other findings of Dowling-Degos disease were comedone-like lesions on the face and back, a finger-like fibroma in the right popliteal fossa, dystrophic fingernails, and a large number of seborrhoeic keratosis-like lesions predominantly on the flexural areas. Another unique clinical feature was the lack of vellus hair on the whole body surface. In addition to thin branching and elongation of rete ridges with basal hyperpigmentation, immature hair follicles surrounded by fibrosis and a lace-like pattern of the hair follicle epithelia were observed histologically. These epithelial hamartomatous features were consistent with Dowling-Degos disease. We speculate that the SCCs developed in relation to an underlying naevoid anomaly in pilosebaceous epithelia of Dowling-Degos disease. ( info)

7/46. New syndrome of hypotrichosis, striate palmoplantar keratoderma, acro-osteolysis and periodontitis not due to mutations in cathepsin c.

    We report a mother and daughter with a syndrome of hypotrichosis, striate palmoplantar keratoderma, onychogryphosis, periodontitis, acro-osteolysis and psoriasis-like skin lesions. The syndrome resembles Papillon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS), characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma, periodontitis and psoriasis-like skin lesions, and particularly Haim-Munk syndrome, an allelic variant of PLS with acro-osteolysis. Both are caused by mutations in the cathepsin c gene (CTSC). Our patients differ in the unique nature of the palmar keratoderma and hypotrichosis. We have sequenced CTSC in the mother without finding mutations in either coding or non-coding parts of the gene. We propose that our patients suffer from a new syndrome possibly caused by mutations in a gene that has a functional or structural relation with CTSC. ( info)

8/46. erythrokeratodermia variabilis with erythema gyratum repens-like lesions.

    A large pedigree with erythrokeratodermia variabilis (EKV) and erythema gyratum repens-like lesions is described. Clinical, laboratory, and histologic findings of this family are presented. The differential diagnoses of the following dermatoses with an erythematous and a hyperkeratotic component are discussed: erythrokeratodermia variabilis (Mendes da Costa), progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma (Gottron), loricrin keratoderma, erythrokeratoderma en cocardes (Degos), netherton syndrome, keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome, erythrokeratolysis hiemalis (Oudtshoorn disease), and nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. ( info)

9/46. Cole disease: hypopigmentation with punctate keratosis of the palms and soles.

    Cole disease is an uncommon disorder characterized by distinctive cutaneous hypopigmentation and punctate keratosis of the palms and soles. It is a congenital skin disease with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. We report two patients from a family with 15 members, 5 of whom were affected. One of the patients had both types of lesions since birth, while in the other they arose in the first months of life. We studied the pedigree, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy findings of the hypopigmented macules with the patients' normal skin used as a control. The pedigree showed involvement of both genders, with a Mendelian autosomal dominant inheritance pattern with phenotypic variability in the family. immunohistochemistry showed a reduction in the melanin pigment in the keratinocytes and normal pigmentation in the melanocytes. Ultrastructural studies showed a strong contrast between the large number of melanosomes in the body and dendrites of the melanocytes, in contrast with the small number of these organelles in the neighboring keratinocytes. These findings suggest that this disease is a primary congenital disorder of the transfer mechanisms of the melanosomes from melanocytes to keratinocytes in hypopigmented lesions, associated with abnormal epidermopoiesis in the punctate hyperkeratosis. ( info)

10/46. angiokeratoma corporis diffusum in a Spanish patient with aspartylglucosaminuria.

    angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (ACD), initially considered to be synonymous with Fabry's disease, represents a well-known cutaneous marker of some other lysosomal enzyme disorders. aspartylglucosaminuria (AGU) is a rare hereditary disorder mostly affecting the Finnish population, with only a few sporadic patients of non-Finnish origin. To date, only three patients with AGU have been reported with cutaneous lesions of ACD. A 19-year-old Spanish woman presented with a 10-year history of progressive ACD affecting the limbs, buttocks and trunk. After the age of 6 years she had developed progressive mental deterioration, coarse facies and macroglossia with a scrotal appearance. Peripheral blood smears showed many vacuolated lymphocytes. Enzyme analysis in cultured fibroblasts revealed a decreased activity of aspartylglucosaminidase. By the age of 31 years the patient had developed a bipolar psychosis, polycystic ovarian disease and severe impairment of cognitive skills. This is the first case of AGU detected in a Spanish patient presenting with cutaneous lesions of ACD. To our knowledge, macroglossia with a scrotal appearance and polycystic ovarian disease have not been reported in previous cases of AGU. ( info)
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