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1/1. Toxic-shock syndrome not associated with menstruation. A review of 54 cases.

    An increasing proportion of reported cases of toxic-shock syndrome (TSS) are not associated with menstruation (13.2% of reported cases with onset in 1981). The 54 cases of TSS not associated with menstruation reported through the U.S.A. national surveillance system between January, 1980, and June, 1981, were either associated with staphylococcus aureus infections (cutaneous or subcutaneous lesions, infected surgical wounds, bursitis, mastitis, adenitis, lung abscess, or primary bacteraemia) or followed childbirth by vaginal delivery and caesarean section. patients with TSS not associated with menstruation differed significantly in age and racial distributions from those with menstruation-associated TSS, and 17 of them were male. The clinical features of TSS not associated with menstruation and the characteristics of the S. aureus strains isolated from these patients were similar to those observed in TSS related to menstruation. The median incubation period of the disease in the post-surgical cases was 2 days. TSS can occur in many clinical settings in patients of both sexes and of all ages and racial groups.
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