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1/61. Linear IgA disease associated with lymphocytic colitis.

    A 66-year-old woman presented with a bullous skin eruption and chronic diarrhoea. Lesional skin showed subepidermal blistering, and direct immunofluorescence of perilesional skin revealed linear deposits of IgA at the dermoepidermal junction, establishing a diagnosis of linear IgA disease (LAD). Chronic watery diarrhoea complicated by substantial loss of body weight preceded the skin eruption for several months. On endoscopy, the colon appeared macroscopically normal. On histology, the colon mucosa showed increased numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes and infiltrates of mononuclear cells in the lamina propria, indicative of lymphocytic colitis. Treatment with methylprednisolone and dapsone led to complete clearing of the bullous skin eruption and marked improvement of the patient's diarrhoea. Gastrointestinal disorders such as lymphocytic colitis have rarely been reported in patients with LAD. Whether the simultaneous occurrence of these two diseases is coincidental or due to related pathogenetic mechanisms remains to be seen.
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2/61. Linear IgA disease with IgA antibodies directed against 200- and 280-kDa epidermal antigens.

    We report an 80-year-old man with the lamina lucida type of linear IgA disease, with IgA autoantibodies reactive with 200-kDa and 280-kDa epidermal proteins. The patient presented with widespread bullous lesions on his trunk and extremities without mucosal involvement. Histopathology of lesional skin showed a subepidermal blister with papillary microabscesses of neutrophils and a few eosinophils. Direct immunofluorescence microscopy of perilesional skin showed linear deposits of IgA and C3 at the basement membrane zone. The patient's serum contained IgA autoantibodies that bound exclusively to the epidermal side of 1 mol L-1 NaCl split skin as determined by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Circulating IgA autoantibodies to 200- and 280-kDa antigens were detected in the patient's serum by immunoblot analysis using extracts from normal human epidermis and human epidermal keratinocytes. These two antibodies, eluted from individual nitrocellulose membranes, reacted with the epidermal side of 1 mol L-1 NaCl split skin on indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and bound to hemidesmosomes as determined by immunoperoxidase electron microscopy. This observation suggests the presence of hitherto uncharacterized 200- and 280-kDa hemidesmosomal proteins distinct from BPAG1, BPAG2 and beta4 integrin as target antigens in linear IgA disease.
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3/61. autoantibodies in anti-p200 pemphigoid stain skin lacking laminin 5 and type VII collagen.

    We report the case of a patient with a widespread bullous skin disease and linear deposits of IgG and C3 at the dermal-epidermal junction using direct immunofluorescence microscopy. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated circulating IgG autoantibodies that stained, like autoantibodies to laminin 5 and type VII collagen, the dermal side of 1 mol L-1 NaCl-split human skin. By immunoblotting dermal extracts, the patient's serum, like serum samples from two control patients, reacted with a 200-kDa protein. Using immunoelectron microscopy, the serum labelled a component of the lower lamina lucida, but not the lamina densa/sublamina densa region, distinguishing this from the type VII collagen localization pattern. By immunofluorescence microscopy on skin sections from patients lacking either laminin 5 (Herlitz's epidermolysis bullosa) or type VII collagen (recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa of Hallopeau-Siemens), the patient's serum retained reactivity with these test substrates. The patient's disease responded rapidly to the use of topical corticosteroids and lesions healed without scarring or milia formation. Our results provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that the 200 kDa autoantigen is different from laminin 5 and type VII collagen. For this new disease, we propose the designation 'anti-p200 pemphigoid'.
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keywords = lamina
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4/61. Bullous amyloidosis: the mechanism of blister formation revealed by electron microscopy.

    BACKGROUND: Few electron microscopic studies of blister lesions in bullous amyloidosis have been reported, and the mechanism of blister formation remains to be elucidated. This study was designed to examine the nature of bullous amyloidosis ultrastructurally, and clarify the pathogenesis of blister formation. methods: We examined a 47-year-old woman with IgD-lambda type myeloma, suffering from bullous lesions on her hands and feet caused by trauma or rubbing. light and electron microscopic studies were performed. RESULT: Ultrastructurally, amyloid deposits aggregated under the lamina densa. Keratinocyte protrusions penetrated the dermis through the gap in the lamina densa and enfolded amyloid deposits. Amyloid globules were found in enlarged intercellular spaces of keratinocytes. Desmosomes were sparsely distributed in some areas of the epidermis. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that keratinocytes enfold the amyloid globules and take them in the intercellular space of epidermis, and that the breakdown of the lamina densa and widening of the intercellular space between keratinocytes induce skin fragility. Trauma or rubbing of her hands and feet appears to act as the localized precipitating factor of blister formation in bullous amyloidosis.
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5/61. Exclusion of COL7A1 mutation in Kindler syndrome.

    We describe a patient with Kindler syndrome with an 18-year follow-up who was initially misdiagnosed as suffering from dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. The patient's skin showed broad reticulate labeling for collagen VII and reduplication of the lamina densa. Screening of this patient's dna excluded any pathogenic COL7A1 mutations.
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6/61. psoriasis bullosa acquisita.

    We report a 51-year-old man with a 20-year history of chronic plaque psoriasis who developed an autoimmune subepidermal blistering eruption that had clinical features of bullous pemphigoid, erythema multiforme and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Investigations revealed a 1 : 400 titre circulating and in vivo bound IgG autoantibody that mapped to the dermal side of 1 m NaCl-split skin and localized to the lower lamina lucida/upper lamina densa on immunogold electron microscopy. immunoblotting, using dermal extracts, showed serum binding to antigens of approximately 200- and approximately 260 kDa. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, using the patient's serum on archival skin sections taken from selected individuals with different forms of inherited epidermolysis bullosa as substrate, showed normal basement membrane labelling on all samples apart from recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa skin (with inherent mutations in the type VII collagen gene): in these cases there was a complete absence of immunostaining. Clinically, the patient responded rapidly to combination treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and oral corticosteroids, dapsone and mycophenolate mofetil. Autoimmune subepidermal blistering has been reported in other patients with psoriasis, although no specific target antigen has ever been determined. Our study provides preliminary evidence that, for this patient at least, the autoantibody may be targeted against a skin component closely associated with type VII collagen (the epidermolysis bullosa acquisita antigen). Therefore, we propose the term 'psoriasis bullosa acquisita' for this and possibly other patients with similar skin eruptions.
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keywords = lamina
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7/61. A bullous skin disease patient with autoantibodies against separate epitopes in 1 mol/L sodium chloride split skin.

    BACKGROUND--We describe a patient with a subepidermal bullous skin disease associated with autoantibodies recognizing separate epitopes in 1 mol/L sodium chloride (NaCl) split skin. OBSERVATIONS--Direct immunofluorescence microscopy showed deposits of immunoglobulins and C3 in a continuous pattern in the patient's epidermal basement membrane zone. Direct immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated thick deposits of IgG overlying the lamina lucida and the lamina densa in a unique pattern. The patient had circulating IgG anti-basement membrane zone antibodies that bound both sides of 1 mol/L NaCl split skin, exhibited at least a fourfold-higher titer against the dermal side of this test substrate, and bound basal keratinocyte hemidesmosomes as well as focal sites along the superior portion of the lamina densa on indirect immunoelectron microscopy. Affinity purification of anti-basement membrane zone antibodies against epidermal or dermal strips of 1 mol/L NaCl split skin yielded IgG that only bound the side of split skin from which it was eluted. The patient's serum contained IgG that immunoprecipitated and immunoblotted the 230- and 170-kd bullous pemphigoid antigens. Affinity purification of patient antibody against bullous pemphigoid antigen immobilized on nitrocellulose paper yielded IgG that bound only the epidermal side of 1 mol/L NaCl split skin. The patient showed no evidence of reactivity against type VII collagen by direct immunoelectron microscopy, indirect immunoelectron microscopy, or immunoblot. CONCLUSIONS--This patient's bullous skin disease is associated with IgG anti-basement membrane zone antibodies with two specificities: one recognizing the bullous pemphigoid antigen in the epidermal side of 1 mol/L NaCl split skin, and another binding a distinct, yet presently unidentified, epitope in the superior aspect of the lamina densa.
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ranking = 4
keywords = lamina
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8/61. Ultrastructural immunogold studies in two cases of linear IgA dermatosis. Are there two distinct types of this disease?

    It has been suggested that patients with homogeneous linear IgA deposits at the basement membrane zone constitute a distinct bullous disorder called linear IgA dermatosis (LAD) of adults or children. The results of the present ultrastructural immunogold study in two patients with LAD suggest that LAD is not a single disease entity. LAD in a 10-year-old girl was found to be ultrastructurally similar to an IgA-type pemphigoid. IgA was detected in the uppermost lamina lucida underlying the basal cell plasma membrane. In a second patient, an 86-year-old man, IgA deposits were present within the lamina densa and the anchoring plaques. The distribution of IgA in this patient was ultrastructurally identical with that of IgG in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita skin and with that of the non-collagenous globular terminus of collagen VII within the basement membrane zone of normal skin. By using the immunogold technique, we could distinguish two distinct types of LAD according to the IgA binding sites in the diseased skin. We suggest that different labelling patterns may correspond to different clinical pictures.
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ranking = 2
keywords = lamina
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9/61. Transient bullous dermolysis of the newborn. Retention of anchoring fibril- and basal lamina-like structures in keratinocytes and evidence of collagenolysis.

    In a freshly induced blister from transient bullous dermolysis of the newborn, we found in epidermal basal cells structures similar to anchoring fibrils and lamina densa, often in combination. In the upper dermis, collagenolysis and phagocytosis of degenerated collagen fragments were observed. It is concluded that the stellate inclusions previously reported in this disease are prematurely assembled anchoring fibrils and lamina densa. A disturbance of delivery mechanism of precursor materials for anchoring fibrils and lamina densa may cause the deficiency of these structures which are essential for the integrity of dermo-epidermal adhesion. The presence of many normal anchoring fibrils and lamina densa in perilesional skin and their prompt degeneration after rupture of the inclusions previously led us to conclude that lytic enzymes are involved in the formation of blisters in this disease. The new finding of collagen phagocytosis in the lesional dermis seemed to support this contention.
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ranking = 8
keywords = lamina
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10/61. vancomycin-associated linear IgA dermatosis. A report of three cases.

    BACKGROUND: Linear IgA dermatosis is an autoantibody-mediated, subepidermal blistering disease that is rarely associated with drug exposure. OBJECTIVE: We report the development of linear IgA dermatosis in three patients associated with the administration of vancomycin and further characterize the immunopathology. methods: Direct and indirect immunofluorescence assays were performed to characterize the immunoreactants, determine the subclass of the IgA deposits, and map the site of antibody deposition. RESULTS: A subepidermal blistering disease developed in all patients shortly after vancomycin was initiated, which resolved on discontinuation of the drug. Immunofluorescence studies revealed linear deposits of IgA1 only at the basement membrane zone, below the lamina lucida. Circulating IgA anti-basement membrane zone antibodies were not detected. CONCLUSION: Three patients had linear IgA dermatosis in association with the administration of vancomycin. All patients had linear deposits of IgA1 localized to the sublamina densa zone. Immunophenotypically, the disease in these patients mimics the pattern of IgA deposits seen in the majority of patients with idiopathic linear IgA dermatosis.
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ranking = 2
keywords = lamina
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