Cases reported "Skin Diseases, Viral"

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1/41. herpes zoster in a 7-month-old infant: a case report and review.

    herpes zoster (HZ) is a cutaneous viral infection of the skin that presents in a dermatomal distribution. It represents reactivation of herpes varicella zoster virus that has continued to exist in a latent form in the neurons of the posterior root ganglia. Although it is rare to see HZ in children, cases have been reported after exposure to varicella zoster in utero or during the first months of life. We present a case of HZ in a healthy 7-month-old girl who had had chickenpox at age 4 months.
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ranking = 1
keywords = varicella zoster, varicella, herpes
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2/41. herpes zoster in seven disparate dermatomes (zoster multiplex): report of a case and review of the literature.

    Noncontiguous multidermatomal herpes zoster is very rare in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised persons. Most of the reported cases have been limited to 2 noncontiguous dermatomes. This unique presentation has been referred to as zoster duplex unilateralis or bilateralis, depending on whether one or both halves of the body are involved. Granulomatous dermatitis at sites of herpes zoster scars, a rare isotopic response, has only been reported in persons with contiguous dermatomes of zoster. We describe an immunocompromised patient who developed herpes zoster in 7 disparate dermatomes. Three months after resolution of the zoster, the patient developed a granulomatous dermatitis in a zosteriform distribution at the sites of previous infection.
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ranking = 5.8481689249677
keywords = herpes zoster, herpes
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3/41. Longitudinal study of a patient with herpes-simplex-virus-associated erythema multiforme: viral gene expression and T cell repertoire usage.

    BACKGROUND: erythema multiforme is a polymorphous self-limited, often recurrent eruption that can follow herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, hereby designated HAEM. Studies of relatively large groups of patients during one recurrent episode indicated that HAEM pathogenesis is associated with HSV gene expression, Vbeta2 T cell infiltration of lesional skin and altered T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire usage by HSV-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, HAEM recurrences are not always preceded by overt HSV eruptions and virus cannot be isolated from HAEM lesional skin. Therefore, it is unknown whether all HAEM recurrences experienced by a given patient are HSV related. OBJECTIVE: The studies described in this report were designed to examine whether all HAEM recurrences experienced by a given patient are HSV related. methods: We describe one patient who was studied longitudinally during 6 HAEM recurrences and in the intervening lesion-free periods. Lesional skin from all HAEM episodes was studied for HSV gene expression and infiltration by Vbeta2 and Vbeta3 T cells. PBMC obtained at these times were assayed for TCR repertoire usage upon HSV stimulation. RESULTS: Lesional skin from all HAEM episodes was positive for HSV gene expression (rna and protein) as well as Vbeta2 T cell infiltration. HSV-stimulated PBMC obtained at these times had an altered TCR repertoire characterized by a predominance of Vbeta2 cells. The duration of viral gene expression, Vbeta2 cell infiltration and altered TCR repertoire usage correlated with the duration of clinical symptoms. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that HSV and a virus-specific immunopathology component are involved in the causation of all HAEM episodes experienced by the patient.
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ranking = 0.51105594698651
keywords = herpes
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4/41. Herpes and the head and neck: the difficulties in diagnosis.

    A case of primary herpes of the head and neck is presented. The exact source of infection and the precise diagnosis proved difficult to establish, but evidence tended to support a diagnosis of varicella zoster infection as opposed to a herpes simplex infection, though a dual infection was not ruled out. herpes simplex has specific clinical features which usually make its distinction from varicella zoster clear cut. In this case we relied heavily on laboratory investigations to improve the accuracy of our diagnosis since the clinical characteristics were blurred. Unlike varicella zoster there has been little written about herpes simplex infections specifically affecting the ear, face and neck.
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ranking = 1.653316784096
keywords = varicella zoster, varicella, herpes
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5/41. Herpes incognito.

    Can a microscopist suspect that telltale histopathologic changes of infection by herpesvirus (varicella, zoster, or simplex) are nearby even when no diagnostic epithelial changes are present in the sections being studied? Punch-biopsy specimens from three patients are presented; in two of those cases herpesvirus infection was not even a clinical consideration. The initial histopathologic sections from these patients did not show changes of herpesvirus infection, but step sections revealed focal diagnostic changes. Atypical lymphocytes were present in each of these cases. When atypical lymphocytes are found in concert with a pattern of an inflammatory-cell infiltrate that does not conform precisely to any well-defined entity, a microscopist should consider that the findings may represent changes near infection by herpesvirus. In addition, we reviewed every case we diagnosed as herpesvirus infection over an 18-month period and found that in just over two thirds of those specimens (32 out of 45 cases), atypical lymphocytes accompanied the characteristic epithelial changes induced by herpesvirus.
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ranking = 0.77957467865828
keywords = varicella, herpes, herpesvirus
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6/41. Histopathologic findings in cutaneous cytomegalovirus infection.

    When cytomegalovirus (CMV) involves the skin, viral inclusions are typically present within mesenchymal cells, e.g., endothelial cells, fibrocytes, and sometimes within inflammatory cells, e.g., macrophages, in contrast to infection in other organs in which inclusions are usually present within ductal epithelial cells. Two cases of cutaneous CMV are presented, one showing prominent findings within eccrine ductal epithelium and the other revealing mostly endothelial cells affected by CMV. Due to the range of cytologic changes induced by CMV observed in these cases, there seem to be early, fully developed, and late cellular changes brought about by CMV analogous to how herpesvirus (varicella, zoster, simplex) induces different changes depending on its stage of infection.
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ranking = 0.24550552886892
keywords = varicella, herpes, herpesvirus
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7/41. Prolonged herpes zoster in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    In 1983, varicella zoster virus (VZV) disease was first recognized in the context of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since that time, there have been many reports discussing the occurrence and clinical manifestations of hepes zoster in HIV-infected patients. We describe the development of prolonged herpes zoster in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) over the course of 104 days. Viral isolates at the three different clinical stages of the skin lesions were sensitive in vitro to acyclovir, and supposed to be a same strain by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. We also discuss an effective treatment for prolonged cases of zoster.
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ranking = 10.195842613581
keywords = herpes zoster, varicella zoster, varicella, herpes
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8/41. herpes simplex virus infection in a hyper-IgE patient: appearance of unusual mass lesions.

    A 7-year-old girl presented with large soft masses rising from the nostril and from behind the ear. She had previously been diagnosed as suffering from hyper-IgE syndrome. The presence of herpes simplex virus infection within these lesions was confirmed by biopsy and immunohistochemical studies. The mass lesions did not respond to antibacterial therapy with cefazolin, but improved promptly under antiviral therapy with acyclovir. Immunological studies revealed a mild decrease in the CD4 cell population. Based on our results and on the relevant literature we propose an immunological mechanism for this unique manifestation of herpes simplex virus infection in hyper-IgE syndrome.
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ranking = 0.2044223787946
keywords = herpes
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9/41. Ocular involvement in an outbreak of herpes gladiatorum.

    An epidemic of herpes simplex virus type 1 occurred in 60 of 175 wrestlers (34%) attending a four-week intensive training camp. Five of these 60 patients (8%) developed ocular involvement that included follicular conjunctivitis, blepharitis, and phlyctenular disease. Cultures of the conjunctiva and eyelid vesicles were positive for herpes simplex virus type 1 in four of the five patients with ocular disease. The viral isolates were compared by restriction-endonuclease analysis, which disclosed that three of the four isolates were the same strain. None of the patients had corneal involvement and there has been no evidence of viral recurrence to date. herpes simplex virus type 1 is a health risk for wrestlers, and ocular infections are part of the clinical spectrum. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate management of the outbreak may reduce the severity of the outbreak transmission.
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ranking = 0.61326713638381
keywords = herpes
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10/41. Verrucous lesions secondary to dna viruses in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus in association with increased factor xiiia-positive dermal dendritic cells. The Military Medical Consortium of Applied Retroviral research washington, D.C.

    BACKGROUND: Hyperkeratotic lesions caused by varicella-zoster, herpes simplex, or cytomegalovirus occur in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1). We have also observed this type of lesion with molluscum contagiosum. OBJECTIVES: These cases were studied to determine whether there are any pathologic changes unique to these lesions. methods: The cases were studied by routine microscopic examination and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Each case showed changes diagnostic of the viral infection, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical stains for herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus. In the dermis there were fewer inflammatory cells than expected, but there was an increase in factor xiiia-positive dendritic cells. CONCLUSION: Varicella-zoster, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and molluscum contagiosum can cause verrucous lesions in hiv-1-infected patients. These lesions may be related to an increase in factor xiiia-positive dendritic cells.
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ranking = 0.44532526710295
keywords = varicella, herpes
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