Cases reported "Skin Neoplasms"

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1/25. A novel Epstein-Barr virus-like virus, HV(MNE), in a macaca nemestrina with mycosis fungoides.

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of humans has been associated with the development of lymphoid malignancies mainly of B-cell lineage, although occasionally T-cell lymphomas have been reported. We describe here the characterization of a novel EBV-like virus (HV(MNE)) isolated from a simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type I/II (STLV-I/II) seronegative pigtailed macaque (macaca nemestrina) with a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. immunohistochemistry studies on the skin lesions demonstrated that the infiltrating cells were of the CD3( )/CD8( ) phenotype. Two primary transformed CD8( ) T-cell lines were obtained from cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and skin, and, with time, both cell lines became interleukin-2-independent and acquired the constitutive activation of STAT proteins. polymerase chain reaction analysis of the dna from the cell lines and tissues from the lymphomatous animal demonstrated the presence of a 536-bp dna fragment that was 90% identical to EBV polymerase gene sequences, whereas the same dna was consistently negative for STLV-I/II sequences. Electron microscopy performed on both cell lines, after sodium butyrate treatment, showed the presence of a herpes-like virus that was designated HV(MNE) according to the existing nomenclature. in situ hybridization studies using EBV Epstein-Barr viral-encoded rna probes showed viral RNA expression in both CD8( ) T-cell lines as well as in the infiltrating CD8( ) T cells of skin-tissue biopsies. Phylogenetic analysis of a 465-bp fragment from the polymerase gene of HV(MNE) placed this virus within the lymphocryptovirus genus and demonstrated that HV(MNE) is a distinct virus, clearly related to human EBV and other EBV-like herpesviruses found in nonhuman primates.
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2/25. Animal type melanoma: a report of a case with balloon-cell change and sentinel lymph node metastasis.

    Animal type melanoma is a rare histopathologic variant of melanoma characterized by sheets and nodules of heavily pigmented epithelioid melanocytes that involve the entire thickness of the dermis. This human neoplasm mimics melanocytic neoplasms seen in gray horses and laboratory animals; thus, is termed animal type melanoma. It is quite rare and, with only a few reported cases, its biological behavior is not well understood. We report an example of animal type melanoma on the back of a 27-year-old man. The lesion showed areas of melanoma in situ, which ruled out the possibility of metastatic melanoma. Features of regression were also seen at dermo-epidermal junction and papillary dermis. In some areas, neoplastic melanocytes exhibited a balloon-cell appearance; in others the neoplasm was composed of sheets and fascicles of heavily pigmented epithelioid melanocytes that permeated the entire dermis and extended into the dermal-subcutaneous interface, mimicking a cellular blue nevus. Epithelioid melanocytes in deeper areas showed abundant, heavily pigmented cytoplasm and pleomorphic nuclei with prominent eosinophilic nucleoli and some mitotic figures. The neoplastic cells did not show evidence of maturation in deeper areas of the lesion. In some sections, a nodule of heavily pigmented epithelioid melanocytes was seen far from the main bulk of the lesion, at the dermal-subcutaneous interface, raising the possibility of a satellite lesion. A lymphoscintigraphy showed a sentinel lymph node in the right axilla and a subsequent axillary lymphadenectomy demonstrated that the architecture of the sentinel lymph node was effaced by metastatic melanoma. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy with inteferon alfa-2b and four months after this treatment the patient is alive and well, without evidence of recurrences or additional metastases.
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3/25. Gigantic cutaneous horns of the scalp: lesions with a gross similarity to the horns of animals: a report of four cases.

    Gigantic cutaneous horns, grossly similar to the horns seen in animals, are exceedingly rare in humans. After finding one case in practice, we searched our departmental files for similar cases and examined them grossly and microscopically. Four cases were identified. All occurred as solitary lesions in older women on the parietal-occipital region of the scalp. They had a growth history of up to 30 years; the women hid these horns in their hair. Grossly, the horns were yellow-grey, and there were shallow furrows running along the length of the horns. The length ranged from 17 to 25 cm, and the width was up to 2.5 cm. All four lesions showed similar histologic changes. Microscopically, the gigantic horns consisted of a mixture of squamous epithelial cells and tricholemmal keratinized debris. In one case the base of the horn was directly connected with a mass composed of benign tricholemmal cysts of the scalp. Mitoses were common, but atypical mitoses were not observed. The nuclei of the squamous cells were bland without pleomorphism, hyperchromasia, or atypia. Follow-up of all patients was uneventful: all patients were well and without signs of recurrence or metastasis 2-15 years after the surgical excision. Gigantic cutaneous horns are rare and benign. We think that they represent an extremely well-differentiated variant of proliferating tricholemmal tumor with an unusual and remarkable gross pattern.
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4/25. Epithelioid sarcoma of the thumb associated with hydrazine fuel exposure: a case report.

    Hydrazine fuels are commonly used propellants for missiles and tactical jet aircraft used by the U.S. Air Force and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration. Hydrazine fuels are known to cause cancer after respiratory exposure or ingestion in laboratory animals and humans. Although hydrazine is known to cause skin irritation, there are no published reports describing cancer developing after cutaneous exposure to hydrazine in humans. Hydrazine is known to cause cancer in animals after skin exposure and is used to induce angiosarcomas in mice after cutaneous exposure. We present a case of an epithelioid sarcoma developing in the thumb of a patient after repeated exposure to hydrazine fuel. We hypothesize that the epithelioid sarcoma is a consequence of cutaneous exposure to hydrazine fuel. Continued efforts to develop less toxic alternative fuels and increased personal protection from occupational exposure are highly recommended.
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ranking = 2
keywords = animal
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5/25. melanoma with prominent pigment synthesis (animal-type melanoma): a case report with ultrastructural studies.

    melanoma with prominent pigment synthesis or animal-type melanoma (ATM) is a very rare type of melanoma. Its histogenesis has not been elucidated and ultrastructural features have not been described in human beings. We present an additional case of ATM in a 28-year-old woman with positive sentinel node biopsy and provide the results of electron microscopic studies. Histopathologically, the skin lesion was composed of heavily pigmented neoplastic cells mostly arranged as large sheets, focally also in a nodular growth pattern. After bleaching, the neoplastic cells demonstrated round nuclei with 1 or rarely 2 conspicuous nucleoli and a prominent nuclear membrane and abundant, gray, slate-like cytoplasm. Some cells demonstrated round cytoplasmic inclusions. There was no nuclear pleomorphism, and only a few mitotic figures could be found after extensive search. Multiple areas of necrosis en masse of tumor cells were seen. The lymph node biopsy revealed a complete effacement of the lymph node architecture by the extensive proliferation of hyperpigmented cells in the parenchyma. Immunohistochemically, the same pattern of staining was seen on the bleached and unbleached slides both in the skin and in the lymph node. The neoplastic cells stained positively with MiTF (nuclei), NSE, NKI/C3, tyrosinase (weak), p53, and CD68. S-100 protein, HMB45, Melan A, Mac367, and lysozyme reacted negatively. Occasional cells (<1%) reacted with MIB-1. Ultra-structural studies revealed that the neoplastic cells possessed a large, indented nucleus with a prominent nuclear membrane, a single (para) centrally located nucleolus, and peripherally marginated chromatin. The cytoplasm was abundant and contained numerous single melanosomes and rare compound melanosomes. The melanosomes were in stages II to IV of maturation, with a marked predominance of stage II and stage III melanosomes. There was a high number of aberrant melanosomes with a wide variety of configurations. Melanophages were a minor component of the lesion. Our ultrastructural studies provide unequivocal evidence that ATM is a neoplasm of melanosome-producing cells. We also review the literature on ATM.
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ranking = 5
keywords = animal
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6/25. A case of cutaneous myiasis caused by Wohlfahrtia magnifica.

    myiasis is caused by the invasion of tissues or organs of man or animals by dipterous larvae. The disease is infrequent in turkey; it is observed particularly in people with some predisposing factors. A 46-year-old male farmer with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) presented with the complaint of a blood-tinged discharge and pain in the left frontal-temporal region for three days. physical examination revealed live maggots in the ulcerous wound resulting from basal cell carcinoma. The larvae were removed with forceps, and the wound was locally dressed with povidone-iodine. The maggots were identified as the third instar larvae of Wohlfahrtia magnifica.
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keywords = animal
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7/25. Pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma: two case reports.

    Because of indolent course without mortality, the term "pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma" has been suggested as a replacement for "equine" or "animal-type" melanoma and for the epithelioid blue nevus of the Carney type, from which they are histologically indistinguishable. This report reviews this concept and recounts in detail two of eighteen cases occurring in residents of the Central Coast of california. This paper also contains clinical photographs of pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma, unlike prior reports.
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8/25. Intraepidermal animal-type melanoma.

    Animal-type melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma in humans.1 Its name is derived from its histological appearance, which is similar to that described in melanomas occurring in white or gray horses.2 All tumors are dermally located, and characterized by a proliferation of deeply pigmented elongated or rounded cells, showing moderate atypia and a low mitotic rate. In some tumors, secondary infiltration of the epidermis has been noted. More than half of the patients are younger than 30 years, and prognosis seems to be much better than that expected for a superficial spreading or nodular melanoma of the same size. We report the first case of animal-type melanoma in situ.
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ranking = 5
keywords = animal
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9/25. Endolymphatic isotope and BCG in the management of malignant melanoma.

    Endolymphatic isotope therapy had such promising early clinical results that the M.R.C. (Medical research Council) U.K. set up a clinical trial in 1966. This was to compare the effect of endolymphatic isotope therapy with the results of standard methods in the treatment of lower limb malignant melanoma. The interim report had three groups for analysis: Standard methods (S); Endolymphatic Satisfactory (ES); and Endolymphatic Unsatisfactory (EU). This third group was a subdivision, as a significant number of patients did not have the correct endolymphatic treatment. The five-year survival figures expressed as actuarial percentages were ES=78.8%; S=82.3%; and EU=57.3%. Lymph node recurrence showed a significant difference: ES=2.3%; EU=12%; and S=19%. The conclusions were that endolymphatic isotope therapy was justified in specialized centres where good results could be obtained. Further animal experiments using the VX2 tumour in rabbits indicated that BCG given intracutaneously or intravenously had no therapeutic effect, whereas when applied by intralymphatic injection BCG was successful in treating lymph node metastases. Nineteen patients with poor-prognosis malignant melanoma have received endolymphatic BCG. The clinical results are recorded in this paper and are sufficiently encouraging to warrant its continued use.
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keywords = animal
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10/25. Dermal Langerhans' cell tumor in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    Disseminated dermal tumors in a 71-year-old male represented the first clinical manifestation of a chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. The dermal infiltrate in one of the nodules consisted predominantly of closely packed pleomorphic Langerhans' cells (LC) with typical Birbeck granules and a strong reactivity for S-100 protein. The simultaneous presence of immature myeloid cells led to the suspicion of an underlying myeloproliferative disorder. The diagnosis of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia was subsequently confirmed by bone marrow histology and blood picture. Although some peritrabecular foci of histiocytic cells were detected in bone marrow, no LC could be identified by electron microscopy and histochemical methods. Tumorous aggregates of LC in myeloproliferative disorders have not been described in the literature. histiocytosis X and related diseases could be definitely excluded in the present case. This case obviously suggests an interrelation between the myeloproliferative disease and the focal accumulation of LC in the dermis. In animal studies by Katz et al. LC have been shown to originate in the bone marrow, whereas the origin of LC in man is still a matter of discussion. The present case supports the hypothesis that LC in man are also of myeloid origin. The neoplastic blood monocytes could be the precursors of the dermal LC. This differentiation did not take place in the bone marrow but only in the dermis where LC occur under nonneoplastic conditions ("homing").
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