Cases reported "Skin Neoplasms"

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1/33. Composite cervicofacial flap for reconstruction of complex cheek defects.

    The authors present the reconstructive technique for complex cheek defects using the composite cervicofacial flap and study the possibilities, advantages, disadvantages, and results that can be expected. The design follows the classic outline of Mustarde's flap. The skin is undermined for 2 cm anterior to the ear, then after incision of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS), undermining is continued below the plane of the SMAS, level with the facial nerve branches. It is continued forward to the facial vessels, which give rise to branches that ensure the blood supply of this composite flap and contribute to its high reliability. In the cervical region, undermining is done beneath the platysma, which is transected transversely in the lower cervical region to allow good upward mobility and satisfactory transposition of the flap. The flap is adapted to the defect and the medial suture line is placed as near as possible to the medial limit of the cheek aesthetic unit. The authors carried out a retrospective study of 7 patients with complex facial reconstruction after excision of malignant lesions. The defects measured from 4x4 cm to 9x7 cm. In 4 patients excision included the periosteum, and in 1 patient excision involved the entire thickness and removed the entire anterior half of the cheek. In 4 patients reconstruction involved the cheek and eyelid. In spite of the advanced age of the patients (88, 69, 91, 67, 70, 82, and 59 years), there was no distal edge necrosis. The only complication was a single case of facial paresis, which resolved spontaneously. The results were considered very good in all 7 patients. The authors conclude that the composite flap increases the possibilities of the cervicofacial flap. It is more mobile, more reliable, thicker, and more adaptable. It can be used in complex cheek defects that involve the periosteum, or even in full-thickness defects. The quality of the results obtained using this flap represents a considerable advance in facial reconstruction.
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2/33. An unusual cutaneous presentation of Hodgkin's disease.

    Hodgkin's disease is a neoplasm of lymphoid tissue defined histopathologically by the presence of reed-sternberg cells in an appropriate cellular background. Hodgkin's disease extends only rarely into the skin. Sinus and fistula formation has been reported in very occasional cases. We now report a case of a 34-year-old woman presenting with a cutaneous lesion surrounding a discharging blind-ending sinus in the neck, subsequently diagnosed as Hodgkin's disease. To our knowledge this form of presentation of Hodgkin's disease has not been reported in the English literature before, and at the same time we would like to outline the difficulties in diagnosis encountered with these cutaneous lymphoid lesions.
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3/33. Speckled lentiginous nevus: within the spectrum of congenital melanocytic nevi.

    BACKGROUND: Currently, there is disagreement as to whether speckled lentiginous nevi (nevi spili) are congenital or acquired pigmented lesions. Part of this controversy is related to the natural history of these lesions that often present at birth as hyperpigmented patches and then take several years to reach their more readily recognized spotted form. Arguments in favor of speckled lentiginous nevi as a subtype of congenital nevi include the following observations: multiple reports of lesions present at birth or noted soon thereafter; patterns of distribution reflecting embryonic development; hamartomatous behavior with various types of nevi (eg, junctional nevi, blue nevi, and Spitz nevi) presenting in the same lesion over time; and histologic features of congenital melanocytic nevi within the spots. Herein we present additional evidence for the congenital nature of speckled lentiginous nevi. OBSERVATIONS: Ten patients are described with congenital pigmented lesions that had the clinical appearance of speckled lentiginous nevi in whole or in part. These lesions either evolved and acquired an appearance more suggestive of "classic" congenital nevi, or they existed as "hybrid" lesions with portions appearing as classic congenital nevi adjacent to or admixed with portions appearing as speckled lentiginous nevi. On histologic examination, biopsy specimens from the spots within these lesions showed features of congenital melanocytic nevi. CONCLUSIONS: These 10 cases, along with the arguments outlined above, provide strong support for the hypothesis that speckled lentiginous nevi are a subtype of congenital melanocytic nevi.
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4/33. Merkel cell carcinoma: an overview and case report.

    Merkel cell carcinoma is an extremely rare neoplasm with a high rate of recurrence and metastasis. The lesions predominantly arise on sun-exposed areas of skin in whites between the sixth and seventh decades of life. Within the head and neck region, the cheeks and eyelids are the most common sites. This article outlines the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of this rare but highly aggressive tumor.
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5/33. CO2 laser treatment of epidermal nevi: long-term success.

    BACKGROUND: Epidermal nevi have been notoriously difficult to treat due to their large size and often conspicuous location. Variable results have been obtained with different laser treatments, and scarring and/or incomplete removal is typical after excisional or other destructive modalities. OBJECTIVE: To outline the successful use of a short-pulsed CO2 laser in the long-term eradication of epidermal nevi in three patients. methods: Three females (ages 15-19) presented with extensive grouped verrucous papules and plaques on the face, trunk, and extremities. A pulsed CO2 laser was used to vaporize the lesions using a 500 mJ pulse energy, 3 mm spotsize, and 7 watts of power. RESULTS: All lesions healed without incident. No lesional recurrence was observed 10 to 13 months after treatment except in one small area on the ankle in one patient. CONCLUSIONS: carbon dioxide laser vaporization of epidermal nevi provides good clinical effect and offers unique advantages for the treatment of these lesions, including effective intraoperative hemostasis with excellent lesional visualization. It is also possible to treat widespread areas in one laser treatment session. While the results of this series clearly show the benefit of CO2 laser treatment, epidermal nevi may not always respond so favorably, due in part to the variability in their depths of involvement.
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6/33. Spindle cell hemangioendothelioma exhibits the ultrastructural features of reactive vascular proliferation rather than of angiosarcoma.

    A patient with spindle cell hemangioendotheliomas was followed from 1964 to the present time, allowing the authors the opportunity to examine the lesions in the early, mature, and old phases. Organizing thrombi of different stages associated with slit-like vascular proliferation were always observed, whereas cavernous vascular spaces predominated as the lesions became older. Each spindle cell hemangioendothelioma initially developed relatively rapidly and was sometimes painful but then persisted as a silent nodule for decades. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies revealed that endothelial cells tended to digitate into the slit-like proliferating channels, became attached to other cells by means of tight junctions, and thus obstructed the channels at sites where thrombi developed repeatedly. The vascular spaces, ranging in nature from slit-like to cavernous, were outlined further by a relatively sparse mantle of ramified or dendritic interstitial cells that corresponded to spindle cells. Most of the cells appeared simply to be fibroblasts, but they developed the features of pericytes when they were close to the endothelial lining of well-developed vascular lumens. Large vascular spaces and phleboliths were surrounded by smooth muscle cells. Approximately 20% of the interstitial cells were dendritic macrophages characterized by phagocytic activity, presence of many lysosomes, and factor xiiia expression. The long and characteristic clinical course, the histologic evidence that thrombosis and its organization was continually occurring within the lesions, and the ultrastructural finding that spindle cell hemangioendotheliomas were composed of different microvascular segments from capillaries to veins, suggest that spindle cell hemangioendotheliomas may develop from a cycle of recanalization after thrombosis that occurs repeatedly because of the unique endothelial growth that was noted. This is in contrast with the previous conception that they were low-grade angiosarcomas.
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7/33. dermoscopy for congenital melanocytic nevi.

    Small and medium congenital melanocytic nevi are relatively common but present a small but significant risk of malignant transformation. Because prophylactic excision of all nevi is impractical, dermoscopic evaluation has a role in the clinical decision-making process. dermoscopy of benign congenital nevi reveals a globular or homogenous pattern, black or brown dots and globules, small milia-like cysts within the globules, and terminal hairs. Dermoscopic criteria of melanoma are outlined here, with discussion of common scoring methods, the seven-point checklist, the ABCD rule, pattern analysis, and the Menzies criteria. Serial examination of congenital nevi with dermoscopy and excision of those lesions with malignant criteria are useful in the management of congenital melanocytic nevi.
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8/33. Complex adnexal tumor of the primary epithelial germ with distinct patterns of superficial epithelioma with sebaceous differentiation, immature trichoepithelioma, and apocrine adenocarcinoma.

    A 60-year-old man came for treatment of a sharply outlined erythematous plaque on the gluteal area (45 x 20 mm) of 20 years' duration. Eccentrically located on the plaque was a nodule, 20 mm in diameter. Histological study of the plaque showed a superficial platelike tumor with basaloid bland cytology and sebaceous gland differentiation. Histologic study of the nodule found an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma whose ductlike glandular structures opened to the skin surface and infiltrated the whole depth of the dermis. Study of other areas of the lesion detected two more neoplasms. A nodule of squamous cell carcinoma was found within the superficial band of the benign sebaceous tumor. The fourth neoplastic pattern consisted of epithelial islands composed of basaloid cells within a fibroblastic stroma. There was prominent palisading of epithelial cell nuclei at the periphery of the islands, which usually were surrounded by a sheath of mesenchymal cells. In this complex adnexal tumor of the primary epithelial germ, sebaceous and follicular differentiation both simulate neoplastic patterns recently described as separate entities: superficial epithelioma with sebaceous differentiation and immature trichoepithelioma. The undifferentiated adenocarcinoma may represent differentiation toward the third component of the germ, that is, the apocrine gland.
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9/33. Failure to diagnose: melanoma.

    Case histories are based on actual medical negligence claims, however, certain facts have been omitted or changed by the author to ensure the anonymity of the parties involved. Medical negligence claims alleging 'failure to diagnose' are a common cause of claims and complaints against general practitioners. This article outlines some risk management strategies designed to minimise the possibility of an adverse event arising from failure to diagnose melanoma.
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10/33. Burow's advancement flap closure of adjacent defects.

    When two surgical defects are closely approximated, primary closure may be difficult because of tension on the tissue between the defects. We outline a technique using a Burow's-triangle advancement flap in which the advanced Burow's triangle contains the second defect. The defects are easily closed with a single flap that utilized the second defect. This flap is useful when there are two closely approximated surgical defects of which primary closure is limited by tension on the tissue between the defects.
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