Cases reported "Skin Neoplasms"

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1/727. Bednar tumor (pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans) occurring in a site of prior immunization: immunochemical findings and therapy.

    Bednar tumor is a rare pigmented variant of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP). Because of its rarity, information is lacking regarding the optimal therapy and potential utility of immunohistochemistry in diagnosis. We report a case of Bednar tumor in which the diagnosis was aided by immunohistochemistry for CD34, an antigen known to be expressed in DFSP but not previously reported in Bednar tumor. Our case was also striking because it represents the first reported appearance of a Bednar tumor at a site of prior immunization, a phenomenon previously noted in some cases of DFSP. The patient was treated effectively with mohs surgery and is without recurrence at 9 months.
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2/727. melanosis in association with metastatic malignant melanoma: report of a case and a unifying concept of pathogenesis.

    An unusual case of melanosis associated with metastatic malignant melanoma is reported. This was characterized by progressive blue/gray discoloration of the skin of the chest and abdomen in an elderly patient, 1 year after removal of a polypoid malignant melanoma from the right arm. A biopsy of involved skin revealed perivascular aggregates of melanin-laden histiocytes throughout the dermis, the histopathologic hallmark of melanosis. An unusual aspect of the case was the coincidental finding of a tumor embolus within a small dermal vessel, probably a lymphatic. To date, neoplastic melanocytes have been detected in only a small minority of skin biopsies with features of melanosis. This case and a distillation of related information in the literature lead to the conclusion that the essence of melanosis, and the feature that distinguishes this from conventional metastatic melanoma, is the persistent and cumulative dissemination of melanin, via the bloodstream, throughout the body. This in turn leads to progressive pigmentation of all internal organs and the skin. Only continuous access to the circulation by neoplastic melanocytes could explain such a phenomenon. Potential mechanisms by which this could arise are discussed in the context of existing knowledge.
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3/727. Basal cell carcinoma with massive ossification.

    We report a case of basal cell carcinoma with massive ossification in a 66-year-old white man. Ossification in various benign and malignant neoplasms have been reported including basal cell carcinomas, in which ossifications are seen in small foci or peripheral rim of the tumor. However, in our case, massive ossification is seen throughout the tumor, and only small areas of the periphery of the tumor show diagnostic histology. Therefore, this case might have presented a diagnostic difficulty or been misdiagnosed as an osteoma cutis if a smaller incisional or punch biopsy had been performed. The phenomenon of bone formation itself is not specific for any diagnostic entity, and therefore an underlying lesion should be carefully sought in case of secondary ossification.
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4/727. adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells of the axilla showing apocrine features: a case report.

    A 74-year-old Japanese man developed a reddish, indurated plaque composed of multiple nodules on his right axilla. Histopathologic examination showed a solid tumor that extended from the upper dermis into the subcutis, with both inter- and intracellular lumen formation, cellular arrangement in single files, a fibrotic reaction around the tumor cells, and the presence of mucinous material in the cytoplasm. There was both nuclear and cytoplasmic pleomorphism. Both lysozyme and GCDFP-15 were identified in the tumor cells. Electron microscopic examination showed periluminal condensation of the cytoplasm. Because thorough clinical and laboratory examinations were unremarkable, we regarded this to be a case of primary adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells of the axilla. The neoplasm might have differentiated toward the apocrine sweat glands or the mammary glands. radiation therapy was effective to some degree. This seems to be the first reported case in which adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells of the skin affected a site other than the eyelids.
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5/727. Diagnostic relevance of chromosomal in-situ hybridization in Merkel cell carcinoma: targeted interphase cytogenetic tumour analyses.

    AIMS: To resolve the conflicting diagnoses of five pathologists (which included well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma, malignant carcinoid, undifferentiated small-cell carcinoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumour, metastases of small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC)), and tumour-free lungs after necropsy, we investigated an alarmingly metastasizing MCC in a 32-year-old Caucasian man using chromosomal in-situ hybridization (CISH). Differences in incidence and course in males and females also prompted targeted analyses for chromosomes X and Y. The lesion was also analysed for p53 gene mutations. methods AND RESULTS: paraffin sections of the thorax, buccal lymph nodes and scalp tumours were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. immunohistochemistry was performed with antibodies against pancytokeratin, keratin 20, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin, neurofilaments and vimentin, among others. Sections (5-6 microm) of the tumours were analysed with alpha-satellite probes for chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 11, 12, 17, 18, X and Y using CrSH; and exons 5-9 of the p53 gene were examined by polymerase chain reaction and single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) methods. Although positive for pancytokeratin, keratin 20, chromogranin, NSE, synaptophysin and vimentin, the similarity in antigen profiles expressed by SCLC and MCC prevented a definitive tumour diagnosis. Chromosomal in-situ hybridization, however, revealed trisomies 1 and 11, two frequent aberrations in MCC, and trisomy 18. Moreover, 71% of the tumour cells had two to three copies of X, whereas 98% of the cell nuclei in the hair follicles and normal epidermis (purported Merkel cell origins) displayed one x chromosome. No mutations were detected in the five exons of the p53 gene examined. CONCLUSIONS: Had CISH been performed earlier, treatment may have been tailored specifically to suit MCC, since MCC and SCLC have different therapeutic strategies. Finally, chromosome X may be of prognostic relevance in MCC, which apparently predominates in females and yet shows poorer prognosis in males, and hence be worthy of further investigation.
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6/727. Papillary formations in metastatic melanoma.

    Cytomorphologic features of melanoma can be extremely variable, in that they can mimic other poorly differentiated neoplasms. Ten cases of metastatic melanoma with distinct, cohesive, papillary tissue fragments observed in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens are reported. These papillary fragments exhibited a central fibrovascular core with attached tumor cells, in a background of single scattered malignant cells, macrophages, and focal necrosis. The aspiration sites included regional or distant palpable lymph nodes, pancreas, bone, and skin. Nine cases had a histologic diagnosis of primary cutaneous melanoma, and in one case the primary skin tumor was detected after the diagnosis was established by FNA of the metastasis. Immunohistochemical studies (S-100 protein, HMB-45 antigen, and factor viii) were performed in four cases, and electron microscopy in one, confirming the diagnosis of melanoma. An awareness of this cytomorphologic variation of papillary formations in cytology preparations from metastatic melanoma is important and can prevent potential inaccurate interpretation.
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7/727. A case report including EM and dna repair investigations in a dermatosis associated with multiple skin cancers: epidermodysplasia verruciformis.

    This report describes the clinical, histological and electron microscopic observations in a 51-year-old male with epidermodysplasia veruciformis (EV). cells with early signs of malignant transformation were found closely connected with virus infected epidermal regions. skin cancers appeared initially on sun-exposed areas, such as the face and ear lobes. The UV-induced dna repair synthesis was therefore studied, utilizing peripheral leukocytes. The patient had 40% lower UV-induced dna repair synthesis than the mean of nine healthy subjects of the same age. These results suggest that a decrease in UV-induced dna repair synthesis in combination with a possibly oncogenic viral infection may enhance the disposition for somatic mutations and malignant transformation in patients with EV.
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8/727. Histochemical investigation into the molecular mechanisms of malignant transformation in a benign glomus tumour.

    A glomangiosarcoma arose in a benign glomus tumour. The histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumour were investigated. Apoptotic cells were identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL). The proportion of apoptotic cells was found to be low and TUNEL positive nuclei were present in the benign part of the tumour. Bcl-2 protein, an inhibitor of apoptosis, was strongly expressed in the glomangiosarcoma with only weak staining in the benign area. The proliferation index of the glomangiosarcoma was almost 10-fold higher than that of the benign glomus tumour. Numerous nuclei in the glomangiosarcoma were intensely stained for the tumour suppressor protein p53. The results of the this study may contribute to an understanding of the molecular basis of malignant transformation in benign glomus tumours.
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9/727. Cutaneous waldenstrom macroglobulinemia in transformation.

    waldenstrom macroglobulinemia is a low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder of the elderly with characteristic monoclonal IgM-producing neoplastic infiltrates of the bone marrow, lymph node, and spleen. Cutaneous manifestations are usually nonspecific such as purpura, ulcers, and urticarial lesions. These lesions are caused by hyperviscosity of the blood, immune complex-mediated vascular damage, paraprotein deposition, and amyloid deposition. Specific skin lesions occur rarely and generally consist of translucent, flesh-colored papules composed of monoclonal IgM deposits. Rarely, there may be violaceous lesions composed of low-grade lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates characteristic of waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Both cutaneous manifestations of the disease, as well as disease transformation to high-grade, large cell lymphoma are rare. We report two very unusual cases of waldenstrom macroglobulinemia with documented skin disease that demonstrated transformation to high-grade lymphoma. Both patients were elderly men with long-standing waldenstrom macroglobulinemia involving the bone marrow, who subsequently developed skin involvement by the disease. waldenstrom macroglobulinemia can rarely manifest as cutaneous disease, sometimes as a high-grade transformation of low-grade waldenstrom macroglobulinemia elsewhere. Distinction of cases of transformed waldenstrom macroglobulinemia from de novo cutaneous large cell lymphoma may be important, because the two entities are likely biologically different.
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10/727. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a cutaneous epidermal cyst: case report and literature review.

    Although cutaneous epidermal (infundibular) cysts are extremely common lesions, neoplastic transformation of their epithelium is quite rare. We describe a patient with a squamous cell carcinoma arising in the wall of an otherwise conventional epidermal cyst. In addition, we review the literature concluding that most of the previously reported cases may not correspond to this rare occurrence.
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