Cases reported "Skull Base Neoplasms"

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1/80. A new transfacial approach for lesions of the clivus and parapharyngeal space: the partial segmented Le Fort I osteotomy.

    Tumors of the clival and parapharyngeal areas are a challenge because of their location. They used to be considered inaccessible because the aggressive approaches employed caused elevated levels of morbidity. This fact led to more conservative approaches that attempted to preserve the exposure of the lesion. These approaches were a combination of cranial and facial procedures, thus utilizing a combined effort between neurosurgeons and maxillofacial surgeons. We described our experience with a partial segmented Le Fort I osteotomy added to a transmandibular approach to expose a chordoma of the clivus and left parapharyngeal space. A three-dimensional imaging was used as a diagnostic tool and to plan the optimal surgical approach. The operative technique was described in this case study. Some important technical details of the approach are described. The global outcome was favorable.
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2/80. paraganglioma in the frontal skull base--case report.

    A 56-year-old female presented with a paraganglioma in the left anterior cranial fossa who manifesting as persistent headache. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a solid, enhanced tumor with a cystic component located medially. The tumor was attached to the left frontal base and the sphenoid ridge. angiography demonstrated a hypervascular tumor fed mainly by the left middle meningeal artery at the left sphenoid ridge. The preoperative diagnosis was meningioma of the left frontal base. The tumor was totally resected via a left frontotemporal craniotomy. Histological examination revealed the characteristic cellular arrangement of paraganglioma generally designated as the "Zellbaren pattern" on light microscopy. Only 10 patients with supratentorial paraganglioma have been reported, seven located in the parasellar area. The origin of the present tumor may have been the paraganglionic cells which strayed along the middle meningeal artery at differentiation.
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3/80. Surgical management of intraosseous skull base tumors with aid of Operating arm System.

    Invasion of bone and critical neurovascular structures often impedes complete resection of intraosseous skull base neoplasms, and these lesions tend to recur unless all infiltrated bone is removed. Evolving experience with image guidance over the past few years indicates the potential value of neuronavigation in skull base lesions diffusely infiltrating or fixed to bone structures. We report our early experience with the Radionics Operating arm System (OAS), specifically emphasizing its utility as an adjunct in the treatment of intraosseous skull base tumors, mainly meningiomas. In April 1995 the OAS was introduced into clinical use at the neurosurgical university clinic in Munster, germany. Since then, the system's utility has been explored in 10 patients out of the total neuronavigation series presenting with intraosseous skull base tumors (nine females and one male, mean age 47 years; nine meningiomas, one chordoma). For navigational planning, both 3-mm computed tomography scans and a set of 3-mm fat-suppression magnetic resonance images were chosen. At least four adhesive skin markers were used for system calibration. The system was technically usable in all cases in this small series. Because of the relative immobility of the bone structures and/or the tumor, no significant deviation from the preoperative registration accuracy was noted at the end of the procedures. The main advantages were easier localization and resection of infiltrated bone, which is often not grossly identifiable, even under the microscope. Our preliminary experience with the OAS suggests that image guidance is helpful in this type of lesion, providing better anatomical orientation during surgery and delineating tumor margins and their relation to critical neurovascular structures. The problem of a possible intracranial tumor and brain shift can be neglected in these lesions. The system facilitates resection by volumetric contour information, allowing more aggressive and complete resection.
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4/80. Persistent trigeminal neuralgia after removal of contralateral posterior cranial fossa tumor. Report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: Contralateral trigeminal neuralgia as a false localizing sign in patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors is rare. Persistent contralateral trigeminal neuralgia after removal of the posterior fossa expanding lesion with microsurgical exploration of the affected trigeminal nerve root has been described in only a few reports. Displacement of the brainstem and the trigeminal nerve root, arachnoid adhesions, and vascular compression of the nerve root entry zone have been reported as causes of persistent contralateral trigeminal neuralgia. methods: One patient developed transformation of the contralateral constant burning facial pain into trigeminal neuralgia after removal of a posterior fossa meningioma. A typical right-sided tic douloureux in our second patient did not disappear after removal of a left acoustic neurinoma. CT scan revealed brainstem displacement to the side of trigeminal neuralgia. Microsurgical exploration in both cases demonstrated the squeezed and distorted trigeminal nerve root and displaced brain stem with no vascular involvement. Both patients underwent partial trigeminal rhizotomy for pain control. RESULTS: Complete disappearance of the trigeminal neuralgia was evident in both cases with postoperative facial sensory loss. The postoperative course in the first case was uneventful; the second patient died from purulent meningoencephalitis. CONCLUSION: Persistent contralateral trigeminal neuralgia after removal of a posterior fossa tumor is caused by distortion of the fifth nerve root by the displaced brainstem. Partial trigeminal rhizotomy can be performed for alleviation of facial neuralgic pain in cases without neurovascular compression.
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5/80. hyperthyroidism due to papillary carcinoma of the thyroid--a case report.

    A rare case of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid producing hyperthyroidism is presented. A young patients presented seven years after a thyroid operation with metastatic disease in the cervical lymph nodes and a history of deteriorating vision in the left eye. He also had a lesion in the base of the skull which could not be established to be metastasis from the thyroid cancer. There was clinical and biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism. Radionuclide scan revealed uptake in the residual thyroid tissue and patchy uptake by the cervical lymph nodes. The patient underwent a complete thyroidectomy and radical neck dissection of the left side and 'berry-picking' of the lymph nodes on the right side. Although the patient became euthyroid post-operatively, his general condition deteriorated and he rapidly lost vision in both eyes before any ablative therapy could be instituted for the tumour in the base of the skull. The patient was lost to follow-up.
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6/80. Primary osteogenic sarcoma involving sella-sphenoid sinus--case report.

    A 38-year-old male presented with an extremely rare primary osteogenic sarcoma, unassociated with Paget's disease or late effects of radiation, involving the sella and sphenoid sinus region. Complete excision of the tumor was achieved through an extended frontobasal approach. Postoperatively, six cycles of combination chemotherapy (adriamycin, ifosphamide, and cisplatin) followed by a total of 55 Gy local radiotherapy in 33 fractions was given. Primary osteogenic sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the central skull base tumors. Osteogenic sarcoma, in general, has a bad prognosis, and should be managed aggressively with multimodality treatment including gross total surgical resection, combination chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
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7/80. End-to-end anastomosis of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery before excision of a meningioma involving the lower clivus and the foramen magnum. Case report.

    BACKGROUND: Petroclival and foramen magnum meningiomas sometimes encase the vertebrobasilar arterial system. magnetic resonance imaging can clearly reveal such encasement. The case presented here was of a meningioma involving the lower clivus and the foramen magnum, encasing a lateral segment of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (pica), despite the fact that no definitive diagnosis of the encasement of the pica was made on preoperative radiological examination. End-to-end anastomosis of the pica was necessary before excision of the tumor. methods: A 55-year-old woman presented with complaints of headache and numbness of the right upper extremity. gadolinium diethylene-thiamine-pentaacetic acid enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images showed a homogeneously enhanced mass lesion involving the lower clivus and the foramen magnum. Direct surgery was then performed, and the lateral medullary segment of the left pica was found to be encased by the tumor. End-to-end anastomosis was performed using No. 10-0 interrupted monofilament nylon sutures. Total removal of the tumor was performed after completion of the anastomosis. The patient was free of neurological abnormalities and no recurrence of tumor was found during a 2-year follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: Revascularization is sometimes thought to be required for resection of craniospinal meningiomas even when they do not appear to encase the vertebro-basilar arterial system on preoperative MR imaging and cerebral angiograms. In the present case, dissection of the pica from the tumor was attempted, but was difficult due to tight encasement of the pica by the tumor.
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8/80. A case report: maxillotomy for removal of a clival chordoma.

    Although clival chordomas account for only a small percentage (0.2%) of all intracranial tumors, they represent a considerable challenge for the neurosurgical team. The problems of surgical accessibility to the clivus, management of postoperative complications and tendency of the chordoma to recur are well recognized. This infiltrative tumor located at the skull base has the potential to metastasize and recur, thus meeting the characteristics of a malignant tumor. The maxillotomy, as well as a number of other surgical approaches to the clivus, has been developed and refined for removal of this formidable tumor. It is important to have an understanding of the anatomy of the clivus, the pathology of a chordoma and the surgical technique of a maxillotomy. A case report demonstrates these concepts and nursing considerations for the patient undergoing a maxillotomy for resection of a clival chordoma.
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9/80. Preservation of olfaction in anterior skull base surgery.

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: In selected unilateral tumors and defects of the anterior skull base, the preservation of contralateral olfaction is achievable through a localized subcranial approach without compromising surgical objectives of resection or repair. STUDY DESIGN: Description of a functional adaptation of anterior skull base surgical techniques through a retrospective patient series. methods: Nine patients underwent anterior skull base surgery for unilateral cribriform plate disease including four malignant and two benign tumors, two encephaloceles, and one iatrogenic cribriform injury with cerebrospinal rhinorrhea. All nine patients consented to a localized subcranial approach to the anterior skull base to preserve the contralateral olfactory nerves. In four patients with benign disease a portion of the ipsilateral nerves was additionally conserved. Postoperative olfaction was assessed objectively with a commercially available smell test. Indications, technique, results, and complications are reported and discussed. RESULTS: All patients had eradication of disease with preservation of functional olfaction CONCLUSIONS: Conservation of olfaction is possible in selected cases of anterior skull base surgery when the lesion is unilaterally confined.
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10/80. Complications of venous insufficiency after neurotologic-skull base surgery.

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the incidence and complications resulting from venous insufficiency after neurotologic-skull base surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review of >3,500 cases. SETTING: Tertiary referral center, inpatient surgery. patients: Six patients: four with complications related to chronic venous insufficiency and two with complications related to acute venous insufficiency. INTERVENTION(S): Medical (steroids, acetazolamide, hyperventilation, mannitol) and surgical (lumboperitoneal shunt, optic nerve decompression, embolectomy) interventions were undertaken. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Chronic venous insufficiency: nonobstructive hydrocephalus manifested by headache, disequilibrium, and papilledema with resultant visual loss. Acute venous insufficiency: acute nonobstructive hydrocephalus resulting in mental status abnormalities in the postoperative period. CONCLUSIONS: (1) incidence of 1.5 per 1,000 cases. (2) Acute and chronic forms with different pathogenesis. (3) Acute form presents postoperatively with change in consciousness and herniation, and may proceed to death. (4) Chronic form presents months or years postoperatively with headache, disequilibrium, and visual changes from papilledema. (5) Occurs almost solely in patients with preoperative abnormalities of the venous collecting system. (6) Causes mental status changes postoperatively.
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