Cases reported "Skull Base Neoplasms"

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1/154. Microvascular reconstruction of the skull base: indications and procedures.

    PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to review the use of free tissue transfer for reconstruction of the skull base and for coverage of intracranial contents. patients AND methods: From 1990 until 1996, revascularized flaps were transferred to the skull and the skull base in 11 patients in whom intracranial/extracranial resection of tumors of the skull base was performed in cooperation with the Department of neurosurgery. The defects resulted from removal of squamous cell carcinomas (n = 4), basal cell carcinomas (n = 4), malignant melanoma, malignant schwannoma, and malignant meningioma. Defect repair was accomplished by revascularized transfer of latissimus dorsi muscle flaps in seven cases and rectus abdominis flaps and forearm flaps in two cases each. In five patients with extensive intracranial tumor spread, reconstruction was performed for palliative reasons. RESULTS: A safe soft tissue closure of the intracranial and intradural space was achieved in all patients, whereas the contour of the facial skull and the neurocranium was satisfactorily restored at the same time. By using the entire length of the grafted muscle, the vascular pedicle could be positioned next to the external carotid artery and conveniently connected to the cervical vessels. The mean survival time of the patients with palliative treatment was 8.4 months, with an average duration of hospital stay of 24.5 days. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increased surgical effort of revascularized tissue transfer, microvascular reconstruction of large skull base defects appears to be justified, even as a palliative measure.
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2/154. Neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations of Maffucci's syndrome and Ollier's disease.

    patients with Ollier's disease (multiple skeletal enchondromas) and Maffucci's syndrome (multiple enchondromas associated with subcutaneous hemangiomas) may develop skull base chondrosarcomas or low-grade astrocytomas as a delayed consequence of these disorders. We report three patients with Ollier's disease and Maffucci's syndrome who had diplopia as the initial manifestation of intracranial tumors. Since patients with Maffucci's syndrome and Ollier's disease are at risk for the delayed development of brain and systemic neoplasms, neuroophthalmologists must be aware of the need for long-term surveillance in patients affected by these conditions.
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3/154. Destruction of the glenoid joint fossa by a tenosynovial giant-cell tumour of the skull base: a case report.

    A 63-year-old man is presented in whom a tenosynovial giant-cell tumour had destroyed the temporomandibular joint fossa and expanded intracranially. The lesion was not diagnosed for a period of at least two years. Treatment included wide resection including the surrounding bone, dura and condyle.
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4/154. paraganglioma in the frontal skull base--case report.

    A 56-year-old female presented with a paraganglioma in the left anterior cranial fossa who manifesting as persistent headache. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a solid, enhanced tumor with a cystic component located medially. The tumor was attached to the left frontal base and the sphenoid ridge. angiography demonstrated a hypervascular tumor fed mainly by the left middle meningeal artery at the left sphenoid ridge. The preoperative diagnosis was meningioma of the left frontal base. The tumor was totally resected via a left frontotemporal craniotomy. Histological examination revealed the characteristic cellular arrangement of paraganglioma generally designated as the "Zellbaren pattern" on light microscopy. Only 10 patients with supratentorial paraganglioma have been reported, seven located in the parasellar area. The origin of the present tumor may have been the paraganglionic cells which strayed along the middle meningeal artery at differentiation.
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5/154. Surgical management of intraosseous skull base tumors with aid of Operating Arm System.

    Invasion of bone and critical neurovascular structures often impedes complete resection of intraosseous skull base neoplasms, and these lesions tend to recur unless all infiltrated bone is removed. Evolving experience with image guidance over the past few years indicates the potential value of neuronavigation in skull base lesions diffusely infiltrating or fixed to bone structures. We report our early experience with the Radionics Operating Arm System (OAS), specifically emphasizing its utility as an adjunct in the treatment of intraosseous skull base tumors, mainly meningiomas. In April 1995 the OAS was introduced into clinical use at the neurosurgical university clinic in Munster, germany. Since then, the system's utility has been explored in 10 patients out of the total neuronavigation series presenting with intraosseous skull base tumors (nine females and one male, mean age 47 years; nine meningiomas, one chordoma). For navigational planning, both 3-mm computed tomography scans and a set of 3-mm fat-suppression magnetic resonance images were chosen. At least four adhesive skin markers were used for system calibration. The system was technically usable in all cases in this small series. Because of the relative immobility of the bone structures and/or the tumor, no significant deviation from the preoperative registration accuracy was noted at the end of the procedures. The main advantages were easier localization and resection of infiltrated bone, which is often not grossly identifiable, even under the microscope. Our preliminary experience with the OAS suggests that image guidance is helpful in this type of lesion, providing better anatomical orientation during surgery and delineating tumor margins and their relation to critical neurovascular structures. The problem of a possible intracranial tumor and brain shift can be neglected in these lesions. The system facilitates resection by volumetric contour information, allowing more aggressive and complete resection.
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6/154. hyperthyroidism due to papillary carcinoma of the thyroid--a case report.

    A rare case of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid producing hyperthyroidism is presented. A young patients presented seven years after a thyroid operation with metastatic disease in the cervical lymph nodes and a history of deteriorating vision in the left eye. He also had a lesion in the base of the skull which could not be established to be metastasis from the thyroid cancer. There was clinical and biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism. Radionuclide scan revealed uptake in the residual thyroid tissue and patchy uptake by the cervical lymph nodes. The patient underwent a complete thyroidectomy and radical neck dissection of the left side and 'berry-picking' of the lymph nodes on the right side. Although the patient became euthyroid post-operatively, his general condition deteriorated and he rapidly lost vision in both eyes before any ablative therapy could be instituted for the tumour in the base of the skull. The patient was lost to follow-up.
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7/154. Primary osteogenic sarcoma involving sella-sphenoid sinus--case report.

    A 38-year-old male presented with an extremely rare primary osteogenic sarcoma, unassociated with Paget's disease or late effects of radiation, involving the sella and sphenoid sinus region. Complete excision of the tumor was achieved through an extended frontobasal approach. Postoperatively, six cycles of combination chemotherapy (adriamycin, ifosphamide, and cisplatin) followed by a total of 55 Gy local radiotherapy in 33 fractions was given. Primary osteogenic sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the central skull base tumors. Osteogenic sarcoma, in general, has a bad prognosis, and should be managed aggressively with multimodality treatment including gross total surgical resection, combination chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
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8/154. Endoscopically assisted anterior cranial skull base resection of sinonasal tumors.

    The traditional approach to sinonasal tumors involving the base of skull has been the anterior craniofacial resection. Endoscopic techniques have created the potential to approach the intranasal aspect of skull base lesions without external incisions and still develop an en bloc resection when removed. We report our initial experience with skull base neoplasms in which the otolaryngic portion of the standard resection was accomplished instead through an endoscopic approach. The nature of lesions favorable for this approach and associated technical issues are discussed. Although we do not consider this approach a replacement for the traditional anterior craniofacial resection, it is an important adjunct in the skull base surgeon's armamentarium.
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9/154. Management of the cavernous sinus in en bloc resections of malignant skull base tumors.

    BACKGROUND: cavernous sinus involvement represents the most difficult problem in en bloc resection of malignant skull base tumors. We developed three types of surgical procedures for manipulating the cavernous sinus to achieve en bloc resection of these tumors. methods: In a type 1 procedure, the cavernous sinus was dissected epidurally and retracted posteriorly. In a type 2 procedure, the anterolateral portion of the cavernous sinus was excised and the carotid artery preserved. In a type 3 procedure, the entire cavernous sinus including the carotid artery was resected. RESULTS: Of 25 malignant skull base tumors, type 1 procedures were used in 7, type 2 in 5, and type 3 in 3. For these 15 patients, 7 are in good condition without evidence of tumor recurrence, 2 are alive with tumor, 4 died of tumor recurrence, and 2 died of complications. Two-year survival rates were 54% for patients with a type 1 procedure, 100% for type 2, and 33% for type 3. CONCLUSIONS: Using our techniques, we could totally excise tumors impinging on the cavernous sinus. However, the advanced tumors requiring resection of the entire cavernous sinus with the carotid artery are associated with major morbidity and mortality.
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10/154. Cystic hygroma of the skull base.

    Cystic hygroma is a benign developmental tumor formed by lymph vessels that occurs in 1 of 12000 individuals and presents most frequently in the head and neck. It is often difficult to manage because the tumor frequently envelopes nearby vital structures. Lesions that extend significantly above the hyoid are especially difficult to excise because of the complexity of achieving a complete excision. This article describes a series of 3 cases of cystic hygroma that presented in the head and neck and, on further investigation, were found to also involve the skull base. This anatomic location is exceedingly rare, and these 3 cases represent new and difficult challenges not previously discussed in the literature, to our knowledge.
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