Cases reported "Skull Fracture, Depressed"

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1/31. Brain abscesses from neglected open head injuries: experience with 17 cases over 20 years.

    We are reviewing our experience with 17 civilian cases with post-traumatic brain abscesses treated in the era of CT scanning over a period of 20 years. The principal cause for this intracranial complication was the neglected compound depressed fracture. One was a newborn infant with left parietal abscess caused by a vacuum extraction. We have used the following methods of treating the abscesses: single burr hole aspiration in the newborn with an excellent result; repeated aspiration, with debridement of the depressed fracture, in 5 cases (1 death); aspiration with early subsequent excision, via craniotomy, in 7 cases (no death), and primary excision, via craniotomy, in 4 cases (1 death). The early subsequent excision of the abscess, 2 or 3 days after the initial aspiration, has proved in our experience very satisfactory. In cases with bone fragment into the abscess cavity the excision of the abscess is indicated. The cultured pus from the abscess cavity showed mixed flora (streptococci and staphylococci) in 7 cases; staphylococcus aureus in 4; staphylococcus epidermidis in 2, and no growth in 4 cases. Antibiotics play an important role in the treatment of post-traumatic brain abscesses. ( info)

2/31. An unusual cause of depressed skull fracture: case report.

    BACKGROUND: Camel collision accidents are a common occurrence in saudi arabia, with a high rate of mortality and morbidity. Isolated injuries are rare because of the nature of impact sustained by the person. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 4-year-old child with an isolated depressed skull fracture resulting from a camel collision is described. The other occupants of the car were crushed to death. The child sustained only an impact to his head, causing a compound depressed skull fracture with localized cortical damage. CONCLUSIONS: Camel collision accidents are a common cause of mortality and morbidity in saudi arabia. Isolated skull injuries are rare and result from a localized impact. This is the first report of a compound depressed skull fracture from such an incident. The extent of the problem and efforts toward prevention are described. ( info)

3/31. An unusual management of an open compound depressed skull fracture with venous sinus involvement. A case report.

    A neurosurgical management of an open compound depressed fracture perforating the superior sagittal sinus is reported. Undue bleeding from the fracture did not allow a conservative management. The patient had been operated primarily at an outside emergency surgery unit. Profuse uncontrollable bleeding made a tamponade of the sinus necessary for transportation to our neurosurgical department. After reconstruction of the sinus he survived without evidence of a neurological deficit. ( info)

4/31. titanium clamps for refixation of bone fragments in the repair of depressed skull fractures: technical note.

    The rigid fixation of bone fragments in the repair of depressed skull fractures can be a problem, especially if not all fragments are replaceable. Usually, in these cases mini- or microplates are used. The Craniofix titanium clamp (Aesculap, germany) was developed for the fixation of bone flaps after osteoplastic craniotomy. It consists of a screw holding together two 10-mm diameter metallic disks with concaved teeth pressing bone flap and cranium between the two disks. We used this system for the operative treatment of two patients with depressed skull fracture. A rigid fixation of the bone fragments was achieved in both cases. The postoperative three-dimensional CT scan showed a good fragment alignment. From the report of two cases we show that this system is a useful tool in the fixation of bone fragments in the repair of depressed skull fractures. ( info)

5/31. Traumatic cranial injury sustained from a fall on the rigid external distraction device.

    Distraction osteogenesis has become a popular treatment of congenital maxillocraniofacial anomalies. Many ingenious internal and external devices have been developed and used. The rigid external distraction system based on systems previously used in correction of maxillary retrusion offers postoperative adjustment in two dimensions. Figueroa and Polley reported the use of this device with minimal morbidity in children as young as 5 years of age. They reported no problems with infection, bleeding, pain, loosening of the intraoral splint, dental injury, or wear problems in a series of 14 consecutive cleft patients. Recent modification of the system, rigid external distraction II, has allowed it to be applied to more complex craniofacial deformities that require a LeFort III osteotomy. A review of the neurosurgery and orthopedic literature revealed that halo complications relate primarily to the skull pins. In most cases, these complications can be prevented if the device is carefully applied and monitored. Early recognition and prompt treatment of complications are important. After experience with this system for advancement at the LeFort III level, six patients with various syndromes involving the craniofacial skeleton have undergone LeFort III level distraction osteogenesis with the rigid external distraction device in combination with a planned and stabilized frontosupraorbital advancement. In one of these cases, a 7-year-old child fell on the device after discharge from the hospital and sustained a compound depressed skull fracture that required debridement and repair. ( info)

6/31. A new method for surgical repair of impression fractures of the cranial vault and frontal sinus with rivet-like titanium clamps.

    Conventional methods of stabilizing fragments in cranial impression fracture include the use of threads, wires, plates, etc. A new approach to facilitate this surgery is the use of titanium clamps, presented here in five cases, including one with frontal sinus fracture. Surgery was performed on admission day, with the exception of the sinus fracture. Compared with the use of mini- and microplates, the procedure was simple and short. The fixation was very rigid and the esthetic result excellent in all five cases. skin irritation was minimal, compared with that from miniplates. Computed tomography and MRI compatibility due to artifacts are identical to those with miniplates. ( info)

7/31. Fatal head trauma from tree related injuries.

    Two cases of death following tree related injuries are presented. Two females, an elderly woman and a child, suffered severe head trauma from falling objects from trees--a falling coconut and a falling branch respectively. Although this mode of injury has been previously documented, there have been no prior reports of in-hospital deaths in such patients. This uncommon cause of death is reviewed and recommendations made concerning its prevention. ( info)

8/31. Traumatic basilar artery occlusion caused by a fracture of the clivus--case report.

    A 56-year-old man presented with a rare traumatic basilar artery occlusion caused by a fracture of the clivus. He fell from the height of 2 meters and immediately fell into a coma. head computed tomography (CT) revealed an open depressed fracture, an acute epidural hematoma 1 cm thick in the left middle frontal fossa, and a longitudinal fracture of the clivus. Emergency removal of the hematoma was performed with cranioplasty. head CT 8 hours 50 minutes after injury showed infarctions in the brain stem, cerebellum, and occipital lobes. cerebral angiography revealed occlusion of the basilar artery in the middle part of the clivus. The patient died after 3 days. autopsy revealed that the basilar artery was trapped in the clivus fracture site. Vertebrobasilar artery occlusion due to trapping in a clivus fracture has a very poor prognosis. diagnosis is difficult and generally only confirmed at autopsy. cerebral angiography is recommended in a patient in a deep coma without massive brain contusion at the early stage of head injury to identify the possibility of vertebrobasilar artery occlusion in a clivus fracture. ( info)

9/31. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Tangential views or computed tomography in suspected depressed skull fracture.

    A short cut review was carried out to establish whether CT scans are better than tangential skull radiographs at detecting depressed skull fractures. No papers answering this question were found using the reported search. ( info)

10/31. Osteogaleal flaps in pediatric cranioplasty.

    Reconstruction of cranial defects larger than 2 to 3 cm in diameter and frontal defects of any size is indicated for mechanical protection and cosmetic reasons. The authors used osteogaleal flaps for cranioplasty in 2 pediatric patients with the aim of decreasing infection risk and maximizing bone healing. In the first patient, bone was harvested from the diploe. Children's cranial bones are thin, and in the second patient the authors used full-thickness grafts of adjacent bone, splitting this into three pieces to cover the recipient and donor sites. The postoperative period was uneventful for both children. Scintigraphic studies performed the first week after surgery revealed uptake in the flaps. Computed tomography demonstrated rapid bone healing with good contouring. The scintigraphic findings and rapid bone healing suggest that the bone component of the osteogaleal flap nourishes the graft site with blood from the galea and the periosteum. These flaps are an ideal choice for reconstruction of cranial defects because of their membranous origin, ease of harvest, applicability to any part of the calvarium, and reliable vascularity. ( info)
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