Cases reported "Skull Fractures"

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1/6. The fate of hydroxyapatite cement used for cranial contouring: histological evaluation of a case.

    Craniofacial contouring is a commonly performed procedure applied for traumatic and postsurgical cranial vault or facial skeleton irregularities. Hydroxyapatite cement is an alloplastic material composed of tetracalcium phospate and dicalcium phospate anhydrous that transforms into a paste-like substance when these two compounds placed in an aqueous environment. This mixture, which is a nonceramic microporous calcium phosphate combination, is another alternative for refining the craniofacial contour. There are not enough data regarding bone formation within this material after its use in human beings, however. A case requiring secondary craniofacial contouring after a motor vehicle accident is presented. Hydroxyapatite cement was used for reconstruction, and a second look was carried out for further correction during which secondary contouring of the cement was made and a sample of the previously implanted material was histologically evaluated. It was observed in this case that hydroxyapatite cement is incorporated within the surrounding bony structures and permits secondary contouring procedures. New bone and vessel formation was also detected within the implanted material, but this was limited and thus was not convincing for significant osteoconversion as seen in animal studies.
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2/6. The clinical applications of demineralised bone powder (DBP)-induced osteoneogenesis.

    New bone tissue can be induced anywhere in the animal organism, i.e. even at a site distant from actual bone, by the implantation of demineralised bone powder (DBP). Basic implantation experiments were first carried out and tested in the rat (Bettex-Galland 1985). The results led us to use the experience gained to treat four patients with bone defects with DBP (one bone cyst, and 3 chronic skull defects). The DBP used was prepared aseptically from fresh cadaver bone. The results were assessed by means of x-ray films and/or CT-scan, and the preliminary evaluation is encouraging.
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3/6. Fixation of bone fragments with BIOCEM. First observations on humans.

    BIOCEM is a recently developed material that consists of bisphenol-a-glycidyl methacrylate ("epoxide methacrylate") as the organic matrix and pentacalcium hydroxide triphosphate ("tricalcium phosphate") with or without bioceramic A2 as the filling particles. Previous animal experimentation has demonstrated that BIOCEM can establish and maintain direct contact with bone without compromising tissue vitality. Rather, it favors with time the ingrowth of, and coverage by, newly formed bone, thus creating interdigitations and strong fixation of the implant. This novel technique has now, for the first time, successfully been applied in humans, ie, for the fixation of frontal sinuses. Clinical, radiological, and histological findings are briefly reported, and it is also shown that the frontal sinus mucosa had recovered at the inside of the lesions filled with BIOCEM.
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keywords = animal
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4/6. Animal bites causing central nervous system injury in children. A report of three cases.

    Three cases of animal bites causing central nervous system injury in children are reported. Two infants suffered compound depressed skull fractures as a result of dog bites to the head. An older child suffered direct injury to the spinal cord from a tiger bite. In 2 cases, pasteurella meningitis occurred. Pitfalls in the management of this type of problem are discussed.
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5/6. Craniocerebral injuries from dog bite in an infant.

    Animal bite is a common cause of craniofacial injuries in children. Whereas scalp lacerations from animal bites are often extensive and severe, only four instances of compound depressed skull fractures from animal bites have been reported. A case of a dog bite to the head of an infant is presented to point out the potential for such an insult to produce cranial perforation and underlying brain damage. The associated roentgenographic and computed tomographic features are shown.
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keywords = animal
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6/6. Subperiosteal versus epiperiosteal forehead augmentation with hydroxylapatite for aesthetic facial contouring: experimental animal investigation and clinical application.

    The difference between periosteal and subperiosteal application of hydroxylapatite (HA) in aesthetic forehead augmentation in the subimplant bed was investigated in six adult Gottingen minipigs. These results were then transferred to clinical application. One exemplary case is described. We found that epiperiosteal augmentation with hydroxylapatite should be performed only if shape and location are stable. Subperiosteal augmentation with hydroxylapatite must be judged critically since HA particles migrate into the subimplant bone.
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