Cases reported "Skull Fractures"

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1/10. diagnosis and management of trauma and iatrogenic induced arteriovenous fistulas in the neck.

    Trauma-induced arteriovenous (av) communications in the cervical region involving the external carotid artery and the jugular vein are exceptionally rare. Moreover, an iatrogenic av fistula between the vertebral artery and the vein after insertion of a venous catheter into the internal jugular vein is described. The discussion includes the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of such rare av fistulas.
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2/10. Traumatic avulsion and reconstruction of the midface.

    Traumatic loss of midface soft tissue and supporting structures may result in communication between the oral and nasal cavities. Reconstruction requires both oral and nasal lining, as well as supporting structures. The need for multilaminar tissue, as well as the paucity of local tissue, creates a reconstructive challenge. This case report describes the reconstruction of a traumatic defect of the alveolus, hard palate, inferior orbits, and local soft tissues. An intraoperative alginate mold facilitated a three-dimensional understanding of the wound, and allowed translation of an osseomyocutaneous groin flap to reconstruct the defect in one stage.
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3/10. sinus pericranii: dermatologic considerations and literature review.

    sinus pericranii is a rare disorder characterized by a congenital or acquired epicranial blood-filled nodule of the scalp that is in communication with an intracranial dural sinus through dilated diploic veins of the skull. We describe two patients with sinus pericranii: a 3-year-old boy with a congenital lesion and a 3-year-old girl whose lesion appeared after head trauma. We discuss the clinical presentation, dermatologic manifestations, differential diagnosis, and management as described in the available published literature. patients with sinus pericranii may be brought to the attention of dermatologists and dermatopathologists because of skin changes in the scalp or forehead. The diagnosis is difficult to make clinically, because the skin manifestations are highly variable and may resemble other disorders of the scalp and cranium. The potentially lethal complications including hemorrhage, infection, and air embolism warrant a high index of suspicion for sinus pericranii.
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4/10. Tracer accumulation in a subdural hygroma: case report.

    A surgically proven case of traumatic subdural hygroma gave a "positive" image during 111In-DTPA cisternography, This was probably secondary to a communication between the subdural and subarchnoid spaces.
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5/10. Posttraumatic cerebrospinal fluid cyst of the orbit.

    A 41-year-old woman had a motor vehicle accident and sustained a fracture of the left temporal bone with anterior and middle skull base involvement. After 10 months, she developed persistent right-sided exophthalmus. Orbital computed tomography scans showed a soft tissue mass in the roof of the right orbit with an inferior calcified border. The surgery revealed a cerebrospinal fluid cyst with intracranial communication through the fistula in the posterior orbital roof.
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6/10. Post-traumatic prandial rhinorrhea.

    A patient with a LeFort III fracture developed clear prandial rhinorrhea as a late complication. A parotid-antral communication was discovered and surgically corrected. Only one previous case of parotid-antral rhinorrhea has been reported in the literature. Although it is a rare complication, salivary origin for post-traumatic rhinorrhea must be considered in the differential diagnosis.
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7/10. Posttraumatic cerebrospinal fluid cyst of the orbit. Case report.

    A 27-year-old man sustained a fracture of the orbital roof and a basofrontal dural tear in a motor-vehicle accident. One week later, he developed an orbitocranial dural fistula manifested by an orbital cyst, pulsatile proptosis, and serous drainage from the eye. Specific diagnosis was established only after computerized tomography metrizamide cisternography demonstrated direct communication of the orbital cyst with the subarachnoid space. The pertinent literature is reviewed.
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8/10. Computed tomography of trauma involving brain and facial skull (craniofacial injuries).

    Among head injuries, frontobasal fractures play an important role due to frequently concomitant intracranial complications. Intracranial hematomas, cerebral contusions, depressed fractures, and intracranial air are readily detected by computed tomography (CT). Traumatization of intraorbital structures often associated with blowout fractures and herniation of cerebral parenchyma into the ethmoidal, frontal, or sphenoidal sinuses are best demonstrated by CT. In assessing soft tissue structures, CT is superior to multidirectional tomography, which tends to be more suitable for fine detail study of bony structures. Furthermore, CT is helpful for diagnosing inflammatory processes due to bacterial invasion not infrequently following traumatic communication between the paranasal sinuses and the cranial cavity. Sequelae of head trauma such as posttraumatic porencephaly are clearly demonstrated by CT.
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9/10. Gunshot suicide with nasal entry.

    A man with a long history of depression had recently borrowed a rifle. His body was found on its back in bed in his caravan. A rifle lay over the body with the muzzle pointing towards the head. A suicide note was found at the scene. autopsy revealed entry via the nose with the track passing through the base of the skull to the right parietal region where the main bullet fragments were located beneath the scalp. The history, scene and autopsy findings were consistent with the gunshot wound being suicidal. We can find only one mention of a suicidal gunshot wound with nasal entry in the English-language literature, although a personal communication informed us of a similar case in the Republic of ireland within the past two years. We report this case because of its unusual nature.
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10/10. Epidural hematoma associated with cephalohematoma in a neonate--case report.

    A female neonate presented with cephalohematoma over the temporoparietal region on the right side. Computed tomography (CT) revealed the presence of an underlying epidural hematoma (EDH) and associated skull fracture with communication between the hematomas. Aspiration of the cephalohematoma was followed by reduction in the size of the EDH. CT revealed cure without the need for an operative procedure. Aspiration is indicated for neonatal EDH with mild symptoms and liquefied cephalohematoma.
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