Cases reported "Skull Fractures"

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1/311. Cranio-cerebral erosion: delayed diagnosis and treatment.

    Cranio-cerebral erosion is a well-known complication of calvarian fracture with underlying dural tear and cerebral injury in infancy and early childhood. The anatomy, pathogenesis and natural evolution of these lesions remain obscure. The common clinical symptoms are seizures, focal neurological deficits, impairment of consciousness and a soft subgaleal mass. Three patients of cranio-cerebral erosion who underwent delayed surgery in their adult lives are presented to illustrate the common and uncommon features, and their long-term outcome is discussed.
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2/311. Post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy--two case reports.

    A 60-year-old female and a 66-year-old male presented with post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy associated with clinically asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma manifesting as severe visual disturbance that had not developed immediately after the head injury. skull radiography showed a unilateral linear occipital fracture. magnetic resonance imaging revealed pituitary tumor with dumbbell-shaped suprasellar extension and fresh intratumoral hemorrhage. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed in the first patient, and the visual disturbance subsided. decompressive craniectomy was performed in the second patient to treat brain contusion and part of the tumor was removed to decompress the optic nerves. The mechanism of post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy may occur as follows. The intrasellar part of the tumor is fixed by the bony structure forming the sella, and the suprasellar part is free to move, so a rotational force acting on the occipital region on one side will create a shearing strain between the intra- and suprasellar part of the tumor, resulting in pituitary apoplexy. Recovery of visual function, no matter how severely impaired, can be expected if an emergency operation is performed to decompress the optic nerves. Transsphenoidal surgery is the most advantageous procedure, as even partial removal of the tumor may be adequate to decompress the optic nerves in the acute stage. Staged transsphenoidal surgery is indicated to achieve total removal later.
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3/311. Reduction of nasal orbital fractures and simultaneous dacryocystorhinostomy.

    A technique for restoration of structure and function in naso-orbital fractures has been described. Three case reports demonstrate a few of the final results. The case reports also indicate that many of these fractures require late definitive surgery in spite of optimal surgical treatment immediately subsequent to injury.
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4/311. Phenoprocoumon, head trauma and delayed intracerebral haemorrhage.

    Delayed traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage (DTICH) constitutes a serious complication of head injury, and several studies have set out to identify predisposing clinical variables and appropriate management strategies. Here we report a distinct and particularly malignant course of DTICH associated with oral anticoagulant therapy.
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5/311. Recurrent bacterial meningitis: report of two cases from Riyadh, saudi arabia.

    We report two cases of recurrent bacterial meningitis after head injury in two Saudi boys. The brain CT scan showed bony defects in both despite normal otolaryngeal clinical findings. One child remained well after surgical repair but the other was lost to follow-up.
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6/311. Pituitary insufficiency after penetrating injury to the sella turcica.

    We report a 28-year-old male patient with a pituitary insufficiency after a simple fracture of the sella turcica. He was injured by a long nail that punctured the lower jaw. No fracture other than that of the sella turcica was detected. An endocrinological examination revealed both anterior and pituitary dysfunction and diabetes insipidus that continued for about two months.
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7/311. Fracture of the occipital condyle: the forgotten part of the neck.

    A case of occipital condylar fracture in a multiply injured and unconscious motorcyclist is reported. This injury was clinically unsuspected but found on the lowest cuts of head computed tomography. It is shown that this site is often inadequately imaged when scanning the head and neck in victims of trauma. The Anderson and Montesano classification of occipital condylar fracture is described. It is noted that types 1 and 2 are stable injuries but type 3 is potentially unstable. A retrospective analysis of 30 head computed tomography scans in trauma cases revealed that in only 16 were the occipital condyles adequately imaged. It is emphasised that vigilance is required to detect fractures of the occipital condyle and that it should be standard practice to include this area when performing computed tomography of the head in trauma victims.
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8/311. Traumatic acute giant epidural hematoma in a hydrocephalic shunted child.

    Extradural hematoma (EDH) is considered to be a rare complication of head trauma in children, and represents a serious and urgent pathology from which complete recovery can be expected if specialized treatment is instituted in time. In this article, the authors report the potential danger to a hydrocephalic shunted child who was apparently asymptomatic at the time of hospital admission with a mild head injury and developed an EDH of venous origin. This child had a rapid (time interval from injury to decerebrate posture of about 2 h), atypical (remained asymptomatic most of the time until abruptly deterioration) and fatal course, stressing the importance of early diagnosis and rapid therapy in order to avoid the death of the patient. The authors discuss the role of the ventriculoperitoneal shunting system in the lack of clinical symptoms associated with the presence of a giant EDH and a rapid and fatal course, and stress the importance of computed tomographic (CT) scanning in these patients, even if they are asymptomatic. If a skull fracture is suspected, a CT scan must be performed without delay.
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9/311. Subdural and intraventricular traumatic tension pneumocephalus: case report.

    Simple pneumocephalus most frequently arises as a complication of a head injury in which a compound basal skull fracture with tearing of the meninges allows entry of air into the cranial cavity. It can also follow a neurosurgical operation. Tension traumatic pneumocephalus with intraventricular extension is an extremely rare, potentially lethal condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of subdural and intraventricular accidental tension pneumocephalus occurring in a 26-year-old man as a result of skull fracture. This case is combined with rhinorrhea and meningitis that suggest some difficulties to treat. The operative procedure associated with medical treatment was performed and a good result was obtained.
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10/311. head injury monitoring using cerebral microdialysis and Paratrend multiparameter sensors.

    INTRODUCTION: Following head injury complex pathophysiological changes occur in brain metabolism. The objective of the study was to monitor brain metabolism using the Paratrend multiparameter sensor and microdialysis catheters. patients, MATERIAL AND methods: Following approval by the Local ethics Committee and consent from the relatives, patients with severe head injury were studied using a triple bolt inserted into the frontal region, transmitting an intracranial pressure monitor, microdialysis (10 mm or 30 mm membrane; glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate) catheter and Paratrend multiparameter (oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH and temperature) sensor. A Paratrend sensor was also inserted into the femoral artery for continuous blood gas analysis. RESULTS: 21 patients were studied with cerebral microdialysis for a total of 91 monitoring days (range 19 hours to 12 days). Of these, 14 patients were also studied with cerebral and arterial Paratrend sensors. The mean ( /- 95% confidence intervals) arterial and cerebral oxygen levels were 123 /- 10.9 mmHg and 27.9 /- 5.71 mmHg respectively. The arterial and cerebral carbon dioxide levels were 34.3 /- 2.35 mmHg and 45.3 /- 3.07 mmHg respectively. Episodes of systemic hypoxia and hypotension resulting in falls in cerebral oxygen and rises in cerebral carbon dioxide were rapidly detected by the arterial and cerebral Paratrend sensors. Systemic pyrexia was reflected in the brain with the cerebral Paratrend sensor reading 0.17 degree C (mean) higher than the arterial sensor. Elevations of cerebral glucose were detected, but the overall cerebral glucose was low (mean 1.57 /- 0.53 mM 10 mm membrane; mean 1.95 /- 0.68 mM 30 mm membrane) with periods of undetectable glucose in 6 patients. Lactate concentrations (mean 5.08 /- 0.73 mM 10 mm membrane; mean 8.27 /- 1.31 mM 30 mm membrane) were higher than glucose concentrations in all patients. The lactate/pyruvate ratio was 32.1 /- 5.16 for the 10 mm membrane and 30.6 /- 2.17 for the 30 mm membrane. Glutamate concentrations varied between patients (mean 15.0 /- 10.5 microM 10 mm membrane; mean 28.8 /- 17.8 microM 30 mm membrane). CONCLUSION: The combination of microdialysis catheters and Paratrend sensors enabling the monitoring of substrate delivery and brain metabolism, and the detection of secondary metabolic insults has the potential to assist in the management of head-injured patients.
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