Cases reported "Skull Fractures"

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11/106. Fracture of the sella turcica.

    A patient with a fracture of the sella turcica, visible on lateral X-ray films of the skull, is described. This fracture, although not diagnosed during life, was present in approximately 20 per cent of a series of consecutive autopsies on patients who died of head injury. The significance of this injury to the hypothalamopituitary axis is discussed and methods of investigation suggested.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nose
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12/106. Venous air embolism in homicidal blunt impact head trauma. case reports.

    From 1992 through 1997, there were 41 deaths by homicidal blunt impact head trauma in Hillsborough County, florida. Twenty-one cases were excluded from the study because of putrefaction or survival beyond the emergency department doors, leaving 20 cases for the study. One of the 15 nonputrefied victims found dead at the scene and 1 of the 5 victims pronounced dead in the emergency department had definite venous air embolism. Victim 1 was found dead, bludgeoned with a concrete block, and had open vault and comminuted basilar skull fractures. The dura forming the right sigmoid sinus at the jugular foramen was lacerated. A preautopsy chest radiograph and examination under water documented gas in the pulmonary artery and right ventricle. Victim 2 was bludgeoned with a steel stake and was pronounced dead on arrival in the emergency department. He had open comminuted vault fractures, a transverse basilar skull fracture, and lacerations of the brain. Direct examination and preautopsy chest radiography revealed air in the right side of the heart. A third victim, with basilar fractures, had a small gas bubble in the pulmonary artery not detected by the case pathologist. A fourth victim, with a basilar skull fracture, had an unusual radiographic finding that was thought to be air in the posteromedial aspect of the lower lobe of the left lung but could not be excluded as an air embolus. Optimal postmortem documentation of venous air embolism includes the demonstration of the embolus and the site of air ingress. This study demonstrates that venous air embolism occurs in some victims of homicidal bludgeoning and suggests that when significant, it is easily demonstrated in the absence of putrefactive gas formation. The presence of venous air embolism can serve as evidence that a victim was alive and breathing at the time of the infliction of head wounds. In the belief that venous air embolism might be underdiagnosed in many medical examiner offices, the authors have sought to bring attention to the entity by publishing their experience with it in cases of bludgeoning.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nose
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13/106. Endoscope-assisted facial fracture repair.

    We describe the use of an endoscope-assisted technique for nasal osteotomy and mandibular fracture repair. The endoscopic visual enhancement has been especially helpful in making osteotomy safe and accurate as compared to the drawbacks associated with conventional blind osteotomy. The technique of endoscopically assisted fracture repair of the mandible facilitates anatomic restoration and fixation of the displaced condyle with limited-access incision. Under optical endoscopic magnification, the disadvantages associated with open surgical repair including the risk of facial nerve injury and external facial scarring are minimized. No postoperative complications have been attributable to the endoscopic approach.
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ranking = 4.0891451442535
keywords = nasal
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14/106. A case of traumatic globe luxation.

    We observed a case of traumatic globe luxation. A 26-year-old man who was sitting at the back seat of the car without fastening his safety belt was admitted to the emergency room after an automobile accident. He was in semi-comatose condition. His left globe was dislocated anteriorly, and the lids were tightly closed behind it. No laceration was observed in cornea, sclera and extraocular muscles. The pupil was dilated and did not respond to light stimulation. Computerized tomography scan analysis revealed a normal optic nerve, but multiple fractures in the nasal, inferior and temporal walls of the orbit and in the nasal bone. Phthisis of the eye was detected by the end of second month. We believe that the back seats of automobiles should also be furnished with air bags for better security of passengers.
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ranking = 8.178290288507
keywords = nasal
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15/106. Nasoethmoid orbital fractures: diagnosis and management.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Trauma to the central midface may result in complex nasoethmoid orbital fractures. Due to the intricate anatomy of the region, these challenging fractures may often be misdiagnosed or inadequately treated. The purpose of this article is to aid in determining the appropriate exposure and method of fixation. methods AND MATERIALS: This article presents an organized approach to the management of nasoethmoid orbital fractures that emphasizes early diagnosis and identifies the extent and type of fracture pattern. It reviews the anatomy and diagnostic procedures and presents a classification system. The diagnosis of a nasoethmoid orbital fracture is confirmed by physical examination and CT scans. Fractures without any movement on examination or displacement of the NOE complex on the CT scan do not require surgical repair. Four clinical cases serve to illustrate the surgical management of nasoethmoid fractures. RESULTS AND/OR CONCLUSIONS: Early treatment using aggressive techniques of craniofacial surgery, including reduction of the soft tissue in the medial canthal area and restoration of normal nasal contour, will optimize results and minimize the late post-traumatic deformity. A high index of suspicion in all patients with midfacial trauma avoids delays in diagnosis.
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ranking = 5.0891451442535
keywords = nasal, nose
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16/106. Management of avulsive injuries of the nasal bones: review of the literature and three case reports.

    Blunt contusions, lacerations, and avulsion-type trauma are the most often reported nasal injuries sustained in motor vehicle accidents. The nasal skeleton and soft tissues are frequently involved and may require surgical repair of the injuries. The primary reconstruction often requires the use of autogenous grafts, and secondary revision surgery may be necessary. The treatment may require a multidisciplinary surgical team or a single surgeon who knows how to manage the injury. Optimally, the reconstruction of nasal bone avulsions is performed primarily, using autogenous graft materials. This article presents reconstruction of the nasal deformities in 3 patients involved in motor vehicle accidents. The authors describe and evaluate the various graft materials and surgical techniques utilized. The advantages and disadvantages of autogenous and alloplastic materials are discussed. Studies with more patients and long-term follow-up are required for a definitive evaluation.
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ranking = 32.713161154028
keywords = nasal
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17/106. Management of orbital-sinus foreign bodies.

    Orbital-sinus foreign bodies traverse the orbit and lay, at least partially, within the paranasal sinuses. Most of these injuries occur as a result of facial trauma. In most cases, history alone is not sufficient to rule out a retained foreign body. Early magnetic resonance imaging is necessary to evaluate the full extent of injury. Since these foreign bodies may cause a severe orbital infection and threaten the patient's vision, surgical removal is recommended. Endoscopic sinus surgery provides a safe and effective approach for extraction of these foreign bodies that can be used alone or in conjunction with other surgical approaches. The case of an orbital-sinus foreign body is presented together with a comprehensive approach for diagnosis and management of this type of injury.
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ranking = 4.0891451442535
keywords = nasal
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18/106. External rhinoplasty approach for repair of posttraumatic nasal deformity.

    Up to 50% of patients who have suffered a nasal fracture may seek reconstructive surgery because they are dissatisfied with their appearance and/or ability to breathe. Distortion of native anatomy and dissection planes increases with severity of the injury. The external rhinoplasty approach is a biologically sound technique that offers several advantages over endonasal access for the repair of complex nasal deformities. In 30 consecutive posttraumatic rhinoplasty cases over a 2-year period, 27 (90%) patients underwent correction of their deformities via the external rhinoplasty approach. No technique-specific sequelae were encountered, and all patients were satisfied with their respective result and the healing of the transcolumellar incision. This article reviews the advantages, disadvantages, and contraindications of the external rhinoplasty approach in the posttraumatic patient.
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ranking = 28.624016009775
keywords = nasal
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19/106. Trauma to the temporal bone: diagnosis and management of complications.

    The temporal bone contains important sensory and neural structures that may be damaged in patients who experience craniofacial trauma. The most serious complications of temporal bone trauma include facial nerve paralysis, cerebrospinal fluid leak, and hearing loss. Injury to the temporal bone often presents with subtle signs and symptoms, such as otorrhea, facial palsy, and hemotympanum. A high index of suspicion and a thorough knowledge of how to diagnose injury to the temporal bone are paramount in treating patients who present to the emergency room with craniofacial trauma. This article provides an overview of temporal bone trauma, outlines a methodical approach to the patient with temporal bone trauma, details four cases, and describes the treatment of complications.
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ranking = 1
keywords = nose
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20/106. The traumatic saddle nose deformity: etiology and treatment.

    The saddle nose resembles a saddle, i.e., with a concave, often flattened dorsum and an apparent cephalic rotation of the nasal tip. The concavity may be present in the osseous or cartilaginous dorsum, or both. The saddle nose deformity can be divided into congenital, postinfection, postsurgical, and traumatic types. Congenital saddle nose deformity is rare, often accompanying midfacial deficiency malformation syndromes. The advent of antimicrobial therapy has helped restrict the incidence of syphilitic or leprotic saddle nose to the nonindustrialized nations. Postsurgical saddle nose deformity occurs most often as a result of the overzealous septorhinoplasty. The most common type of saddle nose deformity may be traumatic. The authors use Kazanjian and Converse's characterization of the true saddle nose as one in which the bony and/or cartilaginous portions are depressed and the projection of the nose is generally preserved. This article describes the saddle nose deformity and its etiology and proposes a management technique with minimal complications.
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ranking = 17.089145144254
keywords = nasal, nose
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