Cases reported "Skull Fractures"

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1/616. Cranio-cerebral erosion: delayed diagnosis and treatment.

    Cranio-cerebral erosion is a well-known complication of calvarian fracture with underlying dural tear and cerebral injury in infancy and early childhood. The anatomy, pathogenesis and natural evolution of these lesions remain obscure. The common clinical symptoms are seizures, focal neurological deficits, impairment of consciousness and a soft subgaleal mass. Three patients of cranio-cerebral erosion who underwent delayed surgery in their adult lives are presented to illustrate the common and uncommon features, and their long-term outcome is discussed.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture
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2/616. The blood supply of the reverse temporalis muscle flap: anatomic study and clinical implications.

    Although the reverse temporalis muscle flap has been used clinically, the exact vascular connection between the superficial and deep temporal vessels has not been clearly defined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the vascular territory of the reverse temporalis muscle supplied by the superficial temporal vessels. Six cadaver heads were studied using a colored lead oxide injection through the superficial temporal artery. The specimens were examined macroscopically and radiographically. The reverse temporalis muscle flap was then applied to a clinical case presenting with traumatic anterior skull base defect communicating with the nasal cavity. The cadaver specimens demonstrated that the superficial temporal artery formed an average 1.3 /- 0.2 cm in width of dense vascular zone, which was located within 1.8 cm below the superior temporal line. The dense vascular network further perfused the anterior and posterior deep temporal arteries and the muscular branch of the middle temporal artery to supply the temporalis muscle. The mean perfused area of the temporalis muscle was 83 percent, ranging from 79 to 89 percent, in five cadaver heads. One cadaver revealed only 55 percent of perfused area in the absence of the muscular branch of the middle temporal artery. The consistent area without perfusion was located in the distal third of the posterior portion of the reverse temporalis muscle. In clinical cases, the reverse temporalis muscle flap was used successfully to obliterate the anterior skull base defect without evidence of muscle flap necrosis. The exact blood supply to the distal third of the posterior portion of the reverse temporalis muscle flap needs to be investigated further in vivo. Particular attention was paid to the inclusion of the muscular branch of the middle temporal artery in this flap to augment the blood supply to the temporalis muscle.
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ranking = 0.39287026089024
keywords = skull
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3/616. Post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy--two case reports.

    A 60-year-old female and a 66-year-old male presented with post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy associated with clinically asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma manifesting as severe visual disturbance that had not developed immediately after the head injury. Skull radiography showed a unilateral linear occipital fracture. magnetic resonance imaging revealed pituitary tumor with dumbbell-shaped suprasellar extension and fresh intratumoral hemorrhage. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed in the first patient, and the visual disturbance subsided. decompressive craniectomy was performed in the second patient to treat brain contusion and part of the tumor was removed to decompress the optic nerves. The mechanism of post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy may occur as follows. The intrasellar part of the tumor is fixed by the bony structure forming the sella, and the suprasellar part is free to move, so a rotational force acting on the occipital region on one side will create a shearing strain between the intra- and suprasellar part of the tumor, resulting in pituitary apoplexy. Recovery of visual function, no matter how severely impaired, can be expected if an emergency operation is performed to decompress the optic nerves. Transsphenoidal surgery is the most advantageous procedure, as even partial removal of the tumor may be adequate to decompress the optic nerves in the acute stage. Staged transsphenoidal surgery is indicated to achieve total removal later.
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ranking = 1
keywords = fracture
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4/616. A surgical method for treating anterior skull base injuries.

    skull base surgery was performed on 18 patients with anterior skull base injuries. The operative technique consisted of opening the operative field in the anterior skull base via a coronal incision and a frontal craniotomy, debridement of the anterior skull base including the injured dura mater, performing drainage from the anterior skull base to the nasal cavity by ethmoidectomy, and reconstructing the resulting dural and anterior skull base defect using bilateral temporal musculo-pericranial flaps and a bone graft. Seventeen of the 18 patients recovered without any complications, although epidural abscesses in the anterior skull base had been present in four patients at the time of the operation. Only one patient developed an epidural abscess in the anterior skull base after the operation. None of the patients developed any other complications including meningitis, recurrent liquorrhoea or cerebral herniation. Satisfactory aesthetic results were achieved in 16 of the 18 patients. In one patient, uneven deformity of the forehead, which was caused by the partial sequestration of the frontal bone due to postoperative infection, was observed. In another patient, a depressed deformity of the forehead, which was caused by the partial loss of the frontalis muscle following the use of the frontal musculo-pericranial flap instead of a temporal musculo-pericranial flap, was observed. Anterior skull base reconstruction using bilateral temporal musculo-pericranial flaps provides excellent results in terms of patient recovery and aesthetics.
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ranking = 2.3572215653415
keywords = skull
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5/616. Reduction of nasal orbital fractures and simultaneous dacryocystorhinostomy.

    A technique for restoration of structure and function in naso-orbital fractures has been described. Three case reports demonstrate a few of the final results. The case reports also indicate that many of these fractures require late definitive surgery in spite of optimal surgical treatment immediately subsequent to injury.
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ranking = 6
keywords = fracture
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6/616. temporal bone fracture following blunt trauma caused by a flying fish.

    Blunt trauma to the temporal region can cause fracture of the skull base, loss of hearing, vestibular symptoms and otorrhoea. The most common causes of blunt trauma to the ear and surrounding area are motor vehicle accidents, violent encounters, and sports-related accidents. We present an obscure case of a man who was struck in the ear by a flying fish while wading in the sea with resulting temporal bone fracture, sudden deafness, vertigo, cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea, and pneumocephalus.
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ranking = 6.1964351304451
keywords = fracture, skull
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7/616. Revival of non-surgical management of neonatal depressed skull fractures.

    The management of depressed skull fractures in the newborn infant can be controversial. We report on a neonate, born by Caesarean section with difficult head extraction, complicated by a parietal depressed fracture. This 'ping-pong' fracture was treated by elevation with an obstetrical vacuum extractor. No complications occurred. The possible treatment modalities for neonatal depressed fractures, being conservative or operative, will be discussed.
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ranking = 198.468101836
keywords = skull fracture, fracture, skull
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8/616. Maxillofacial fixation with absorbable miniplates: computed tomographic follow-up.

    Rigid internal fixation has become a mainstay of treatment for maxillofacial trauma. Refinement in materials and manufacturing have led to unobtrusive titanium miniplates and microplates. However, concerns remain regarding the presence of plates and screws after fracture healing has occurred. Absorbable rigid fixation systems ideally would provide sufficient strength and fixation to allow osseous healing and then be absorbed without sequelae. Plates and screws made from polylactic acid-polyglycolic acid copolymer approach this ideal. Four maxillofacial trauma patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation using absorbable plates and screws. Direct coronal computed tomographic (CT) scans were obtained before and after repair of the fractures. CT scan 6 months after repair shows adequate reduction of fractures and osseous healing. Clinical follow-up shows no significant sequelae.
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ranking = 3
keywords = fracture
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9/616. acinetobacter meningitis: four nosocomial cases.

    We report the clinical features and therapeutic outcomes of four patients with multiantibiotic-resistant acinetobacter meningitis. There were three males and one female, aged from 17 to 49 years. Three of them had suffered from head injuries with skull fractures, and the other suffered from an intracerebral hemorrhage and underwent a craniotomy. All four patients acquired nosocomial acinetobacter meningitis, and multiantibiotic resistance developed. After treatment with imipenem/cilastatin, three of the four patients survived; one died of multiorgan failure. Because the clinical manifestations of acinetobacter meningitis are similar to those of other gram-negative bacillary meningitis, the diagnosis can only be confirmed by bacterial culture. Resistance to multiple antibiotics, including third-generation cephalosporins, is frequently seen in patients with nosocomial acinetobacter meningitis, and imipenem/cilastatin seems to be the antibiotic of choice for this potentially fatal central nervous system infection.
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ranking = 39.093620367199
keywords = skull fracture, fracture, skull
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10/616. "Growing fontanelle": a serious complication of difficult vacuum extraction.

    Growing skull fractures in combination with leptomeningeal cysts are well known in childhood. A rare case of a growing fontanelle due to a leptomeningeal cyst is presented. The cyst occurred due to a traumatic delivery with vacuum extraction. Operative repair of the cyst revealed a dural tear at the border of the fontanelle. The imaging findings are discussed.
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ranking = 39.093620367199
keywords = skull fracture, fracture, skull
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