Cases reported "Sleep Apnea Syndromes"

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1/126. Successful treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure in three patients with mucosal hemangiomas of the oral cavity.

    cysts and benign tumors are uncommon causes of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and surgical removal is usually favored. In patients in whom an operation poses a high risk, however, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may prove beneficial. We describe three patients with hemangiomas of the oral cavity in whom polysomnography revealed moderate to severe OSA. In all three patients, nasal CPAP effectively decreased sleep-related disordered breathing events and dramatically improved their sleep. To our knowledge, this is the first report of OSA associated with hemangiomas involving the upper airway. Our experience suggests that nasal CPAP therapy is effective and well tolerated in such patients.
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2/126. Nonlinear multivariable modeling and analysis of sleep apnea time series.

    This paper investigates the modeling and analysis of physiological data recorded from a 49-year-old male and are composed of three time series: blood oxygen saturation, heart rate and respiration. In particular, it is desired to verify if the models estimated from data can distinguish between the dynamics underlying two different breathing patterns (normal breathing and apnea). The estimated models are nonlinear autoregressive, moving average with exogenous inputs (NARMAX) and the regressors used to compose such models are carefully chosen, among hundreds of candidates, by an automatic procedure. The results discussed in this paper suggest that the dynamics underlying the data are nonlinear and basically deterministic. Using estimated models it seems to be possible to quantify the stability of the fixed point in phase space reconstructed using the blood oxygen time series. This, as discussed, could be the basis of an algorithmic monitoring system.
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keywords = breathing, respiration
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3/126. Cosmetic enhancement associated with surgery for obstructive sleep apnea.

    OBJECTIVE: To document the capacity of surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to incorporate techniques that incidentally improve the cosmetic features of the patients. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of surgical outcomes at an academic practice. methods: Moderate to severe OSA usually requires multilevel pharyngeal surgery, including tongue base surgery. The surgical procedures, including hyoid myotomy and mandibular osteotomy with tongue advancement, afford the opportunity to address cosmetic deficits, such as microgenia and excessive submental skin and fat. Outcomes achieved using these procedures over a 4-year period were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 428 consecutive patients presenting for evaluation of sleep-related breathing disorders, 212 were deemed surgical candidates. Ninety-seven of these had office-based procedures for snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome, or mild OSA. The remaining 115 had formal surgical procedures done, and 68 of these had multilevel pharyngeal surgery. Of these, 12 had defined cosmetic deficiencies that were addressed at the time of the sleep apnea surgery. There were 7 men and 5 women, with a mean age of 48.2 years. The group was moderately obese (mean BMI = 31.8) and had moderate to severe OSA (mean RDI = 37.0, mean LSAT = 78%). Cosmetic deficits identified included turkey gobbler deformity (n = 8), microgenia (n = 6), excessive submental fat (n = 2), and nasal deformity (n = 1); several patients had more than one addressable problem. All patients achieved an improved postoperative appearance. Representative photographs are presented. CONCLUSIONS: A surgical approach to the management of sleep apnea affords an opportunity to also address cosmetic deficiencies, including excessive submental skin and fat, microgenia, and nasal deformities.
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4/126. Screening for hypothyroidism in sleep apnea.

    Primary sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (obstructive sleep apnea [OSA]) and hypothyroidism have many signs and symptoms in common. The overlap in clinical presentation, and the sleep-disordered breathing that can accompany hypothyroidism, create a significant risk of misdiagnosis of sleep apnea among patients referred to sleep clinic who have undiagnosed hypothyroidism. We determined the point prevalence of hypothyroidism in our sleep clinic patients with newly diagnosed sleep-disordered breathing. Of 290 sequential patients referred to sleep clinic, 200 (69%) patients judged at high risk for OSA underwent polysomnography (PSG) and biochemical screening for hypothyroidism. Of these, 124 (62%) were judged to have sleep apnea. This included three patients (1.5% of patients undergoing PSG or 2. 4% of those judged to have OSA) who were also discovered to have previously undiagnosed hypothyroidism. These three patients with "secondary" sleep apnea were treated with thyroxine therapy alone, and followed with sequential sleep studies and serum thyroid hormone assays; symptoms, sleep-disordered breathing, nocturnal hypoxia, and thyroid deficiency resolved simultaneously. We conclude that biochemical screening for hypothyroidism is required to prevent inadvertent misdiagnosis of hypothyroid sleep-disordered breathing as primary sleep apnea, and that it is a cost-effective component of the investigation of sleep apnea.
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5/126. Reversal of sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome in end-stage renal disease after kidney transplantation.

    sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is extremely common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although the underlying mechanisms linking these 2 conditions remain to be better defined, it is likely that multiple factors are involved. We report an individual with ESRD with severe SAHS that resolved after kidney transplantation. The improvement in SAHS paralleling the effective treatment of ESRD suggests the pathogenesis involves an unstable breathing pattern, possibly caused by an altered metabolic state, uremia, and changes in volume status. The possibility that elevations in cytokine levels could be involved also is discussed and deserves further attention.
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6/126. Age-related changes in the epiglottis causing failure of nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy.

    At 65 years of age, a former coal miner, now 72-years-old, developed a progressive loss of concentration with daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances. work-up in pneumological and medical sleep centres resulted in diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), borderline obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and, later, upper airway resistance syndrome. In addition, there was evidence of reduced efficiency of sleep. Neither the initial administration of theophylline nor the later use at night of hyperbaric respiration led to improvement in the patient's symptoms. Instead, the patient developed loud snoring, as well as the inability to sleep while in a lying position. At age 71 years, otorhinolaryngological examination resulted in findings of age-related changes in the epiglottis, that completely blocked the hypopharynx upon inspiration. polysomnography, which was possible only in a half-seated position, revealed reduction in deep sleep, with a maximum oxygen saturation of 77 per cent at an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 4.8. Partial resection of the epiglottis with laser surgery resulted in complete improvement of diurnal drowsiness and reduced stamina. Sleeping in a supine position again became possible. polysomnography revealed normalization of sleep architecture, but unchanged, low efficiency of sleep. This case underscores the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of sleep-related breathing disorders.
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keywords = breathing, respiration
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7/126. Chiari malformation and sleep-disordered breathing: a review of diagnostic and management issues.

    Chiari Malformation (CM) encompasses several patterns of congenital or acquired cerebellar herniation through the foramen magnum. This may result in brain-stem compression that impacts control of breathing and is associated with obstructive and central apneas. A high clinical suspicion for sleep-disordered breathing is needed in the care of such patients after as well as before corrective surgery. To introduce a review of CM with a focus on the relevance to sleep medicine, we present a case of a 13-year-old female who was diagnosed with CM Type 1 in the course of an evaluation of symptomatic central sleep apnea. After initial improvement following surgery there was recurrence of brain-stem compression. The only clinical expression of which was polysomnographically evident recurrence of sleep apnea.
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8/126. prader-willi syndrome with sleep disordered breathing: effect of two years nocturnal CPAP.

    We report a case of a 3-year-old child with prader-willi syndrome who had severe sleep disordered breathing with daytime hypersomnolence. His daytime blood gases showed type II respiratory failure. He was effectively treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and has used this form of therapy for 2 years now with improvement in daytime somnolence, improved mental acuity and normalisation of daytime blood gases.
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9/126. narcolepsy and other non-SAS hypersomnia in sleep breathing disorders clinic.

    Four of the 708 snorers (0.56%), referred to our sleep breathing disorders clinic for the past 2 years were diagnosed as having narcolepsy-cataplexy. Detecting HLA DRB1*1501/DQB1*0602 positive was informative for differentiating genuine narcolepsy from non-sleep apnea syndrome (non-SAS) hypersomnia in our clinic. A non-SAS obese boy, diagnosed as having essential hypersomnia syndrome, was found to be HLA DRB1*1502/DQB1*0601 positive. His hypocretin concentration was 206 pg/mL in the cerebrospinal fluid.
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10/126. Complications of radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of sleep-disordered breathing.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate complications of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the treatment of sleep-disordered breathing and to outline complication avoidance strategies. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective review of 51 consecutive RFA treatment sessions for SDB to the soft palate and tongue base by a single surgeon at a tertiary medical center. RESULTS: Over 2 years, 51 treatments comprising 26 palatal and 25 tongue base RFA treatments were performed for sleep-disordered breathing on 30 patients. Complications included palatal mucosal breakdown (11 cases), temporary tongue base neuralgias (4 cases), uvular sloughing (2 cases), tongue base abscesses (2 cases), and floor of mouth edema with airway compromise (2 cases). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first paper focusing on complications of RFA. While complications from soft palate RFA present rapidly and are self-limiting, complications from tongue base RFA may be delayed and life threatening. A detailed strategy is provided to avoid and treat these complications.
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