Cases reported "Sleep Disorders"

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1/388. serum melatonin kinetics and long-term melatonin treatment for sleep disorders in rett syndrome.

    We studied the circadian rhythm of serum melatonin levels in two patients with classical rett syndrome having severe sleep disorders; serum melatonin levels were measured before and during melatonin treatment using radioimmunoassay. Patient 1 had a free-running rhythm of sleep-wake cycle from 3 years of age. At the age of 4 years, the peak time of melatonin was delayed 6 h compared to normal control and the peak value was at the lower limit. Patient 2 had a fragmented sleep pattern accompanied by night screaming from 1 year and 6 months of age. At the age of 10 years, the peak time of melatonin secretion was normal but the peak value was at the lower limit. These patients were given 5 mg melatonin orally prior to bedtime. Exogenous melatonin dramatically improved the sleep-wake cycle in patient 1. In patient 2, exogenous melatonin showed a hypnotic effect but early morning awakenings occurred occasionally. When melatonin treatment was stopped, the sleep disorders recurred and re-administration of 3 mg melatonin was effective in both patients. The effect was maintained over 2 years without any adverse effects. These findings suggests that sleep disorders in patients with rett syndrome may relate with an impaired secretion of melatonin.
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2/388. circadian rhythm sleep disorder associated with pontine lesion.

    A 55-year-old man presented with excessive daytime sleepiness and a circadian rhythm sleep disorder. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a pontine lesion distinguishable from major cerebrovascular disease, demyelination and neoplasm. benzodiazepines, antidepressants, methylcobalamine and thyroxine failed to synchronize the circadian rhythm. Antiepileptic drugs aggravated the condition, while melatonin and protireline partially relieved the patient from poorly controlled sleep disorder. A pontine lesion appeared to be related to the circadian rhythm sleep disorder of the patient.
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3/388. Periodic fatigue symptoms due to desynchronization in a patient with non-24-h sleep-wake syndrome.

    A 43-year-old man complaining of recurrent fatigue symptoms and sleep disorders occurring periodically every 4 weeks was studied. Using a wrist worn actigraphy and an ambulatory rectal temperature monitoring apparatus, his sleep-wake cycle and rectal temperature were measured continuously for 4 months, while diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic interventions were conducted. It was found that after he gave up an attempt to keep to a 24-h-day, a free-running sleep wake pattern appeared but his fatigue symptoms disappeared. An analysis of the relationship between his sleep-wake cycle and the rectal temperature rhythm found that his fatigue symptoms did not appear when both rhythms were synchronized with each other. Artificial bright light therapy entrained him to a 24-h day without relapsing of fatigue symptoms. Desynchronization between a 24-h sleep-wake schedule and his circadian pacemaker may have caused his periodically appearing fatigue symptoms.
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4/388. circadian rhythm sleep disorders in adolescents: clinical trials of combined treatments based on chronobiology.

    Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) and non-24-h sleep-wake rhythm are circadian rhythm sleep disorders that are common in adolescents. Most patients have difficulty adjusting to school life, poor class attendance or refuse to go to school. Since a treatment has not been established, the present paper is presented to propose a strategy for treating circadian rhythm sleep disorders in adolescents, based on our clinical studies. Twenty subjects (12 males and eight females, mean age 16.2 /-1.7 years) participated in the study. The onset of sleep disorder occurred between the ages of 11 and 17. The most common factors affecting the onset of disorders were changes in social environment. The subjects kept a sleep-log for the periods before and during treatments. The treatments were based on chronobiology: resetting the daily life schedule, chronotherapy, regulation of the lighting environment, methylcobalamin, and/or melatonin. Bright light exposure was successful in 10 patients, of whom four were treated with methylcobalamin. melatonin treatment was successful in two patients (one with and one without chronotherapy). Thirteen of the 20 patients were successfully, treated with therapies based on chronobiology. After consideration of these results, a step-by-step procedure of combined treatments for the circadian rhythm sleep disorders is proposed.
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5/388. melatonin treatment of non-epileptic myoclonus in children.

    Oral melatonin (MLT) has been used by our Vancouver research group in the treatment of paediatric sleep disorders since 1991; slightly over 200 children, mainly with multiple disabilities, who frequently had seizures, have been treated. Three children with markedly delayed sleep onset due to recurring myoclonus were also referred for MLT treatment: two had non-epileptic, and one had epileptic and non-epileptic myoclonus. Low doses of oral MLT (3 to 5 mg) unexpectedly abolished their myoclonus and allowed them to sleep. There were no adverse effects. It appears that certain types of myoclonus, which might be resistant to conventional anticonvulsant medications, may respond to MLT but the mechanism of action is unclear. Further research on this novel treatment is urgently needed.
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6/388. wernicke encephalopathy-like symptoms as an early manifestation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a chronic alcoholic.

    A case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) with presenting wernicke encephalopathy (WE)-like symptoms and severe insomnia is presented. An 80-year-old alcoholic man with a 6 month history of tremors, ataxia, memory loss and confabulation, developed profound insomnia, confusion, and delirium with vivid hallucinations. polysomnography revealed a marked reduction of sleep time, with central-type sleep apnea. Neither myoclonus nor periodic synchronous discharge (PSD) was observed. An autopsy revealed diffuse spongiform changes and astrocytosis throughout the cerebral gray matter, with severe involvement of the mammillary bodies and thalamus. Prion protein (PrP) immunostaining was positive in kuru plaques in the cerebellum, PrP polymorphism at codon 129 was heterozygous Met/Val, and proteinase K resistant PrP (PrP(res)) was demonstrated by Western blotting. The lack of necrotizing lesions in the mammillary bodies, thalamus, and periaqueductal gray matter could rule out WE. The data suggest that the present case of CJD is consistent with PrP(res) type 2 (CJD M/V 2), but was unique in the lack of some typical CJD signs and the presence of signs of WE and sleep abnormalities.
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7/388. Genetic factors in human sleep disorders with special reference to Norrie disease, prader-willi syndrome and Moebius syndrome.

    Sleep-wake problems are common in specific inborn errors of metabolism and structure of the central nervous system. Psychological factors, behavioural difficulties, metabolic disturbances, and widespread rather than focal damage to the nervous system are present in many of these diseases and all influence the sleep-wake cycle. However, a number of conditions cause relatively focal damage to the neuroanatomical substrate of sleeping and waking. These include fatal familial insomnia, with involvement of the prion protein gene on chromosome 20, Norrie disease, the prader-willi syndrome and the Moebius syndrome. The last three important conditions, although rare, are considered in detail in this review. They result in sensory deprivation, hypothalamic and mid-brain damage, and involve the X-chromosome, chromosome 15, and chromosome 13, respectively. These conditions cause a wide variety of sleep disturbance, including parasomnias, daytime sleepiness, and a condition like cataplexy. The place of the relevant gene products in normal sleep regulation needs further exploration.
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8/388. A case of neuroleptic-induced unilateral akathisia with periodic limb movements in the opposite side during sleep.

    We report on a patient with schizoaffective disorder who developed unilateral akathisia. This is the first case report of a patient with neuroleptic-induced unilateral akathisia on whom an all-night polysomnogram was recorded. On the polysomnogram we observed right side periodic limb movements (PLM) with left side unilateral akathisia, and after her akathisia disappeared, the PLM also disappeared. brain MRI findings and neurological findings were within normal limits. The pathogenetic lesion causing akathisia could not be elucidated.
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9/388. history of Joubert syndrome and a 30-year follow-up of the original proband.

    The 1960s were a period of great flowering in the recognition of neurologic disorders in children. The so-called ataxic cerebral palsies were an especially fertile field waiting for clarification. Congenital ataxia coupled with hyperpnea-apnea, abnormal eye movements, and retardation was identified as an autosomal-recessive syndrome eponimically associated with the senior author, Marie Joubert. The disorder, though rare, is increasingly recognized and a lay society dedicated to family support and research has been formed. In preparation for a recent symposium the original proband was re-examined 30 years later and the manifestations in adults clarified. Severe dysarthria was the most striking feature in this man, the hyperpnea-apnea had diminished, and the abnormal eye movements were less striking. ataxia was still present but not severe. Poor judgment and borderline intelligence rounded out the clinical picture. Modern imaging has clarified, in part, the anatomic basis of this syndrome.
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10/388. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis associated with multiple sleep onset REM periods.

    A 24-year-old man with sporadic hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) presented with moderate excessive daytime sleepiness and transitory episodes of weakness which occurred during and after sleep. Multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) demonstrated the presence of five sleep onset REM periods (SOREMPs) and a sleep latency of five minutes. Treatment with a diuretic which decreases serum potassium resolved all the clinical symtomps and a new MSLT showed the absence of SOREMPs and a sleep latency of 13.5 minutes. To our knowledge, the patient herein reported is the first case that associates sleep abnormalities and multiple SOREMPs with HPP. Furthermore, the present case suggests that SOREMPs may be explained by an increased extracellular potassium conductance related to HPP.
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