Cases reported "Sleep Disorders"

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21/37. snoring: an acoustic monitoring technique.

    snoring is a significant symptom of upper airway obstruction which has not been measured and quantified in a clinically useful manner. A technique to determine acoustic level, frequency, and duration of snoring is reported. Four case studies illustrate the utility of this method. It is recommended that acoustic monitoring be included in the polysomnographic assessment of selected sleep disorder patients.
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22/37. Fragmentary pathological myoclonus in NREM sleep.

    A 42-year-old patient is reported who presented with marked daytime sleepiness and in whom the only major nocturnal polysomnographic abnormality was intense fragmentary (partial) myoclonus occurring with equal frequency in all stages of NREM sleep associated with some degree of sleep fragmentation. The myoclonus was very brief (less than 150 msec duration), aperiodic and recurred in asynchronous and asymmetrical fashion over the legs, arms and face. It appears unrelated to the clinically similar physiological myoclonus of REM sleep. Other main sleep disorders such as periodic movements, restless leg syndrome, sleep apnea and narcolepsy-cataplexy were excluded by history and polysomnography.
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23/37. Sleep and temporal lobe epilepsy: a case study with depth electrodes.

    We studied a patient with hippocampal epilepsy who had frequent nocturnal and diurnal seizures. Depth electrode recording showed that focal seizure discharges in the right hippocampus were of shorter duration in REM and non-REM sleep. However, awakening, especially from REM sleep or shortly after a REM period, facilitated the occurrence of a generalized seizure. There was no ultradian fluctuation in frequency or duration of seizure during diurnal recording. night terrors (but not nightmares) disappeared after right temporal lobectomy, suggesting that pavor nocturnus was an ictal manifestation in this case.
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24/37. Hypnogenic paroxysmal dystonia: epileptic seizure or a new syndrome?

    Five patients between the ages of 7 and 74 years presented with nocturnal episodes characterized by coarse, often violent movements of the limbs and by a tonic phase of variable duration. seizures recurred every night or almost every night during slow wave (NREM) sleep and were not associated with electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities. Interictal EEGs were normal during both sleep and wakefulness. carbamazepine treatment was effective in all patients. Uniform clinical behavior and EEG patterns indicate a distinct nosological entity whose pathophysiology is not yet understood.
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ranking = 24.199664038355
keywords = wave
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25/37. Episodic sleep disorder triggered by fever--a case presentation.

    An 18 year old boy suffering from episodic sleep disorders triggered by fever was studied in the sleep laboratory. An episode was recorded, starting in slow wave sleep. The diurnal sleep record showed the presence of benign epileptiform transients of sleep. The treatment with diazepam was successful. The relationships with disorders of arousal and epilepsy are discussed.
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ranking = 24.199664038355
keywords = wave
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26/37. Relationship between isolated sleep paralysis and geomagnetic influences: a case study.

    This preliminary report, of a longitudinal study, looks at the relationship between geomagnetic activity and the incidence of isolated sleep paralysis over a 23.5-mo. period. The author, who has frequently and for the last 24 years experienced isolated sleep paralysis was the subject. In addition, incidence of lucid dreaming, vivid dreams, and total dream frequency were looked at with respect to geomagnetic activity. The data were in the form of dream-recall frequency recorded in a diary. These frequency data were correlated with geomagnetic activity k-index values obtained from two observatories. A significant correlation was obtained between periods of local geomagnetic activity and the incidence of isolated sleep paralysis. Specifically, periods of relatively quiet geomagnetic activity were significantly associated with an increased incidence of episodes.
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27/37. flunitrazepam for sleep disturbance in children with intractable epilepsy.

    Add-on therapy with flunitrazepam (FNZ) was performed in 5 children with marked sleep disturbance and intractable seizures. Correction of the sleep disturbance was attained immediately after the start of FNZ administration in all patients. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the seizure frequency (3 patients) and improved quality of life (4 patients) were concomitantly observed. There was no adverse effect or interaction with conventional AEDs on long-term use.
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28/37. Precocious loss of physiological sleep in a case of Creutzfeldt Jakob disease: a serial polygraphic study.

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a prion-related subacute encephalopathy producing widespread neuronal degeneration and spongiform pathological changes, especially in the neocortex. Progressive dementia, motor signs and electroencephalographic (EEG) alterations characterize the full stage of the disease. A series of eight 24-hour polygraphic recordings were carried out in the last 3 months of life of a 68-year-old female patient affected by CJD that was confirmed neuropathologically. Genetic classification demonstrated this patient to have a sporadic form of the disease. The polygraphic recordings demonstrated three types of EEG findings, as follows: 1) sustained pseudoperiodic discharges (SPD), characterized by long-lasting diffuse sequences of slow sharp waves or di- or triphasic slow waves recurring at 0.5- to 1.5-second intervals; 2) discontinuous pseudoperiodic discharges (DPD), consisting of runs of pseudoperiodic discharges (PD)(phase A) cyclically replaced at about 1-minute intervals with semi-rhythmic theta-delta activities (phase B); 3) non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep-like pattern, with dominant 0.5- to 4-Hz activities, less rhythmic than the EEG of phase B. Only these three EEG patterns occurred spontaneously during the repeated polygraphic sessions. The NREM sleep-like pattern was found only in the first recording, whereas the following polygraphic sessions were occupied exclusively by SPD or by a DPD pattern. SPD was associated with either a relatively high level of vigilance (along the first three recordings) or a state of alert-appearing silent immobility (following the fourth recording). During DPD, the patient was unable to accomplish any voluntary movement and fluctuated between levels of greater arousal (phase A) and lesser arousal (phase B). Just as in stage 2 coma, the fluctuations between phases A and B of DPD were synchronous with phasic modifications of muscle activity and neurovegetative functions. In particular, reinforcement of muscle tone and myoclonic spasms coincided with phase A, whereas heart rate deceleration and respiratory pauses or decrease in flow were synchronous with phase B. As EEG evolved toward the disappearance of DPD and finally to flatness, the phase-locked coordination among arousal, somatic and vegetative activities was progressively impaired and was replaced with an uncontrolled exaggeration of cardiorespiratory activity. The genetic, neuropathological and polysomnographic differences between CJD and another prion disease, fatal familial insomnia, are discussed.
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ranking = 48.399328076709
keywords = wave
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29/37. Evolution of segmental myoclonus during sleep: polygraphic study of two cases.

    We describe the sleep evolution of two cases of segmental myoclonus. The first patient had symptomatic palatal myoclonus which, as in most reported cases, persisted during sleep with a slight but significant reduction in frequency. The second patient presented apparently essential spinal myoclonus, which disappeared on falling asleep and recurred for short periods during arousals. This patient also had nocturnal myoclonus involving the legs, as well as those muscles affected by spinal myoclonus. The physiopathological significance of this unusual association is discussed.
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30/37. Supplementary motor area seizure resembling sleep disorder.

    Two patients presented with a complaint of frequent sudden arousals during sleep followed by tachypnea and palpitation associated with stiffness in the upper extremities in one case and by elevation of the left lower limb in the other. All night video-electroencephalogram (EEG) polysomnography (VPSG) confirmed the diagnosis of seizure arising from the supplementary motor area (SMA seizure) in both cases. carbamazepine (CBZ) produced remarkable improvement both in clinical seizures and in their subjective sleep quality. Repeated polysomnography after treatment showed a clear improvement in sleep architecture with higher percentages of slow wave sleep. SMA seizure could disturb nocturnal sleep and is one of the important differential diagnoses for a patient complaining of frequent arousals associated with motor disturbance during sleep.
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ranking = 24.199664038355
keywords = wave
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