Cases reported "Soft Tissue Infections"

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1/13. limb salvage of lower-extremity wounds using free gracilis muscle reconstruction.

    An extensive series reviewing the benefits and drawbacks of use of the gracilis muscle in lower-extremity trauma has not previously been collected. In this series of 50 patients, the use of microvascular free transfer of the gracilis muscle for lower-extremity salvage in acute traumatic wounds and posttraumatic chronic wounds is reviewed. In addition, the wound size, injury patterns, problems, and results unique to the use of the gracilis as a donor muscle for lower-extremity reconstruction are identified. In a 7-year period from 1991 to 1998, 50 patients underwent lower-extremity reconstruction using microvascular free gracilis transfer at the University of maryland shock Trauma Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, and Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center. There were 22 patients who underwent reconstruction for coverage of acute lower-extremity traumatic soft-tissue defects associated with open fractures. The majority of patients were victims of high-energy injuries with 91 percent involving motor vehicle or motorcycle accidents, gunshot wounds, or pedestrians struck by vehicles. Ninety-one percent of the injuries were Gustilo type IIIb tibial fractures and 9 percent were Gustilo type IIIc. The mean soft-tissue defect size was 92.2 cm2. Successful limb salvage was achieved in 95 percent of patients. Twenty-eight patients with previous Gustilo type IIIb tibia-fibula fractures presented with posttraumatic chronic wounds characterized by osteomyelitis or deep soft-tissue infection. Successful free-tissue transfer was accomplished in 26 of 28 patients (93 percent). All but one of the patients in this group who underwent successful limb salvage (26 of 27, or 96 percent) are now free of infection. Use of the gracilis muscle as a free-tissue transfer has been shown to be a reliable and predictable tool in lower-extremity reconstruction, with a flap success and limb salvage rate comparable to those in other large studies.
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2/13. Full-thickness thoracic laminar erosion after posterior spinal fusion associated with late-presenting infection.

    STUDY DESIGN: A case report describes unilateral complete laminar erosion of the caudal thoracic spine and late-presenting infection in a patient 10 years after anteroposterior reconstruction for scoliosis. OBJECTIVE: To present an unusual but significant complication that may occur after implantation of spinal instrumentation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The reported patient presented with a deep infection and persistent back pain 10 years after successful anteroposterior reconstruction for adult idiopathic scoliosis. Delayed onset infections after implantation of spinal instrumentation are infrequent, yet when present, often require hardware removal. methods: The case of a 51-year-old woman who underwent irrigation and debridement for a late-presenting infection and removal of posterior hardware 10 years after her index procedure is presented. Interoperatively, it was noted that full-thickness laminar erosion was present from T4 to T12. RESULTS: The patient was taken to the operating room for wound irrigation, debridement, and hardware removal. It was discovered that a Cotrel-Dubousset rod placed on the convexity of the curve had completely eroded through the lamina of T7-T12. Infectious material was found along the entire length of both the convex and concave Cotrel-Dubousset rods. Intraoperative cultures grew staphylococcus epidermidis and propionibacterium acnes. Intravenous and oral antibiotics were administered, resulting in resolution of the infection and preoperative pain. CONCLUSIONS: The exact role of late-presenting infection with regard to the laminar erosion and rod migration seen in this case remains to be elucidated. However, the authors believe the primary cause of bony erosion was mechanical in origin. Regardless, most spine surgeons will treat many patients who have had posterior spinal implants and will perform hardware removal on a significant number of these patients during their careers. A full-thickness laminar erosion exposes the spinal cord to traumatic injury during hardware removal and debridement. This case is presented as a cautionary note to help surgeons become cognizant of a potentially devastating complication.
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3/13. Facial necrotizing fasciitis following acute dacryocystitis.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of progressive necrotizing fasciitis of the face following acute dacryocystitis. DESIGN: Interventional case report. methods: A 60-year-old woman presented with left acute dacryocystitis with abscess formation that had ruptured; a small wound remained. Erythematous swelling of the left eyelid and face developed 3 days later. Clinical progression and computed tomographic findings led to the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis with abscess formation. Early intravenous antibiotics and repeated surgical debridements were performed. RESULTS:Soft tissue necrosis was found the fascial planes extending deep to the maxilla bone and periorbital fat. The patient was successfully treated without ocular, orbital, or facial complications. CONCLUSIONS: Necrotizing fasciitis of the eyelid and face progresses rapidly. early diagnosis, prompt intravenous antibiotic administration, and aggressive surgical debridement will prevent the associated morbidity and mortality.
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4/13. Protean manifestations of intravenous drug use.

    Intravenous drug use is an increasing social problem. Repeated venepunctures, injection of insoluble substances and needle sharing habits in intravenous drug users result in complications leading to admissions under various medical specialities. Many of these patients, however, manifest soft tissue wounds requiring specialised care from plastic surgeons. Typical presentations include injection site related abscess, cellulitis, necrotising fasciitis and non-healing wounds. We present a series of 11 consecutive cases treated in our unit over a six-month period, to highlight the varied clinical presentations and potential difficulties in their management.
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5/13. The use of anterolateral thigh perforator flaps in chronic osteomyelitis of the lower extremity.

    From April of 2000 to May of 2003, 28 consecutive patients with chronic osteomyelitis of the lower extremity underwent surgical debridement and reconstruction with anterolateral thigh perforator flaps (six cases were combined with vastus lateralis muscle flaps). All wounds were open for a minimum period of 6 weeks (average, 24.7 months; range, 6 weeks to 52 months). The average patient age was 42.8 years (range, 18 to 71 years), there were 21 male and seven female patients, and the average follow-up period was 18.2 months (range, 5 to 41 months). The cause of injury was an open fracture in 10 cases, secondary wound complications after reduction in eight cases, and diabetic foot in 10 cases. The surface defects ranged from 50 to 153 cm. The wounds were debrided an average of 2.5 times and then reconstructed with flap and treated with antibiotics for 6 weeks. Antibiotic beads were used in six cases and secondary bone graft procedures were performed in seven cases 3 months after the flap coverage. All 28 flaps were successful without any signs of recurrences or persistent osteomyelitis, but partial wound dehiscence was observed during early rehabilitation in two cases suspected of delayed healing caused by diabetes. These wounds healed spontaneously. All patients achieved acceptable gait function after rehabilitation. No debulking procedure was necessary in any case. Although the muscle flap is known to provide superior vascular supply, the type of flap used for coverage seems to be less critical in the final outcome, provided that total debridement and obliteration of dead spaces are achieved. A well-vascularized anterolateral thigh perforator flap was successfully used to combat infection and bring stability to wounds with chronic osteomyelitis.
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6/13. lymphoma masquerading as infection.

    During surgical training, medical students and residents constantly are reminded to culture every suspected tumor and send tissue for pathologic evaluation for every suspected abscess. A diagnosis of cancer can be missed easily if this procedure is not followed, delaying the diagnosis and possibly adversely affecting the patient's prognosis. The confusion also may be compounded by a sterile abscess, positive culture results or a negative biopsy specimen. Therefore it is imperative to do a biopsy and a culture on any suspect lesion. An additional workup and possible biopsy may be warranted for a nonhealing wound that has been treated appropriately. The cases of three patients with lymphoma that were treated as infectious processes are presented. In all three instances, the appropriate treatment was delayed because of a delay in diagnosis.
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7/13. Multifocal cutaneous mucormycosis complicating polymicrobial wound infections in a tsunami survivor from sri lanka.

    A man injured in the tsunami of Dec 26, 2004, returned to Sydney for management of his soft-tissue injuries. Despite broad-spectrum antibiotics, surgical wound debridement, and vigilant wound care, his condition worsened. Muscle and fat necrosis developed in a previously debrided thigh wound, and necrotising lesions arose from previous abrasions. Histological analysis showed mucormycosis in three non-contiguous sites, and Apophysomyces elegans was isolated from excised wound tissue. Wound infections, both bacterial and fungal, will undoubtedly add to the morbidity and mortality already recorded in tsunami-affected areas. Other cases [correction] of cutaneous mucormycosis might develop in survivors, but this disease can be difficult to diagnose and even harder to treat, particularly in those remaining in affected regions.
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keywords = wound infection, wound
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8/13. The management of dog bites and dog bite infections to the hand.

    Dog bites account for approximately one of 200 emergency room visits. The majority of bites are from dogs known to the victim. Due to the numerous small compartments and the thin covering of soft tissue over the bones and joints, bite wounds to the hand are more likely to become infected that are bites to the arm, leg, or face. Improper management can result in significant morbidity and prolonged treatment. This article discusses the microbiology of dog bite wounds, antibiotic selection, and proper wound management.
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9/13. aeromonas hydrophila--its implications in freshwater injuries.

    lacerations or puncture wounds sustained in freshwater environments are susceptible to contamination by aeromonas hydrophila. Numerous cases have been reported of cellulitis secondary to water-related injuries requiring hospitalization where A. hydrophila was the isolated organism. The typical presentation of an infection of A. hydrophila mimics a streptococcal soft tissue infection, which may result in delay in administration of appropriate antibiotics. A case is presented of a nonimmunocompromised patient who developed an A. hydrophila infection following freshwater-related injuries.
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10/13. Importance of dressing removal before radiolabeled WBC imaging for musculoskeletal infection.

    Leukocyte imaging performed with in-111 or Tc-99m is gaining widespread acceptance as a method for detection of osteomyelitis associated with soft tissue injury or infection. The authors present three cases in which initial imaging was suggestive of a focal infectious process in bone and soft tissue. However, repeat imaging after the removal of wound dressings, which revealed sero-sanguineous discharge in all cases, resulted in a scan appearance that was much less remarkable for focal radiotracer accumulation in the bone. The authors conclude that accumulation of labeled WBCs in wound discharge can result in scans that are false-positive for osteomyelitis. Therefore, the authors recommend that wounds should be cleaned and dressings changed before imaging in order to avoid scans that are false-positive for osteomyelitis.
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