Cases reported "Somnambulism"

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1/47. Zolpidem tartrate and somnambulism.

    A case is reported in which a patient experienced somnambulistic episodes only after taking zolpidem tartrate for insomnia. Previous to the patient's use of zolpidem tartrate he had never experienced sleepwalking, and once the medication was discontinued the sleepwalking stopped. A search of the literature revealed only two other cases of zolpidem-induced sleepwalking, both involving individuals with a previous history of somnambulism in their youth. ( info)

2/47. SPECT during sleepwalking.

    Sleepwalking is a dissociation between body sleep and mind sleep. We report single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in a man with a history of sleepwalking. Our findings suggest that this dissociation arises from activation of thalamocingulate pathways and persisting deactivation of other thalamocortical arousal systems. ( info)

3/47. Is there a dissociative process in sleepwalking and night terrors?

    The enduring and contentious hypothesis that sleepwalking and night terrors are symptomatic of a protective dissociative mechanism is examined. This is mobilised when intolerable impulses, feelings and memories escape, within sleep, the diminished control of mental defence mechanisms. They then erupt but in a limited motoric or affective form with restricted awareness and subsequent amnesia for the event. It has also been suggested that such processes are more likely when the patient has a history of major psychological trauma. In a group of 22 adult patients, referred to a tertiary sleep disorders service with possible sleepwalking/night terrors, diagnosis was confirmed both clinically and polysomnographically, and only six patients had a history of such trauma. More commonly these described sleepwalking/night terrors are associated with vivid dream-like experiences or behaviour related to flight from attack. Two such cases, suggestive of a dissociative process, are described in more detail. The results of this study are presented largely on account of the negative findings. Scores on the dissociation questionnaire (DIS-Q) were normal, although generally higher in the small "trauma" subgroup. These were similar to scores characterising individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. This "trauma" group also scored particularly highly on the anxiety, phobic, and depression scales of the Crown-Crisp experiential index. In contrast the "no trauma" group scored more specifically highly on the anxiety scale, along with major trends to high depression and hysteria scale scores. Two cases are presented which illustrate exceptional occurrence of later onset of sleepwalking/night terrors with accompanying post-traumatic symptoms during wakefulness. It is concluded that a history of major psychological trauma exists in only a minority of adult patients presenting with sleepwalking/night terror syndrome. In this subgroup trauma appears to dictate the subsequent content of the attacks. However, the symptoms express themselves within the form of the sleepwalking/night terror syndrome rather than as rapid eye movement sleep related nightmares. The main group of subjects with the syndrome and with no history of major psychological trauma show no clinical or DIS-Q evidence of dissociation during wakefulness. The proposition that, within the character structure of this group, the mechanism still operates but exclusively within sleep remains a possibility. ( info)

4/47. sexual behavior in sleep, sleepwalking and possible REM behavior disorder: a case report.

    Seven cases of sexual behavior during sleep (SBS) have been recently reported. The subjects had histories of behavioral parasomnias as well as positive family histories of parasomnia. A 27 year-old man with a history of sexual behavior during sleep was reported. His sleep history disclosed sleepwalking (SW) since 9 years of age. He also developed episodes of highly disruptive and violent nocturnal behavior with dream enactment at age 20 years, which often resulted in physical injuries either to himself or his wife and infant. His wife also reported episodes of amnestic sexual behavior that began 4 years before referral. During the episodes, the patient typically procured his wife, achieving complete sexual intercourse with total amnesia. Physical and neurological diagnostic workups were unremarkable. family history disclosed sleepwalking in his brother. He was put on 2mg/day of bedtime clonazepam with a remarkable clinical improvement. This case involves either the combination of violent and non-violent sleepwalking with SBS, or the superimposition of presumed rem sleep behavior disorder (RBD) on top of preexisting SW in a man who also developed SBS in adulthood. Thus, this is a case report of probable parasomnia overlap syndrome. ( info)

5/47. Epileptic nocturnal wanderings with a temporal lobe origin: a stereo-electroencephalographic study.

    SUMMARY: To show the results of the exploration conducted with intracerebral electrodes in a patients affected by epileptic nocturnal wanderings (ENWs). METHOD: The patient was investigated with long-term video-stereo-electroencephalographic (SEEG) monitoring by means of stereotactically introduced intracerebral electrodes. RESULTS: We recorded four nocturnal seizures with typical features of ENWs. The SEEG ictal recordings demonstrated a well-localized initial discharge always confined to the right temporal structures with secondary spread to the cingulate regions. DISCUSSION: Together with paroxysmal arousals and nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia, ENWs has been considered as a manifestation of the nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Our investigation and the result of surgical outcome in this patient indicate that in some cases such episodes could have a temporal-lobe origin. ( info)

6/47. Sexsomnia--a new parasomnia?

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a distinct parasomnia involving sexual behaviour, which we have named sexsomnia. METHOD: We have used a case series as a basis for the description of sexsomina. RESULTS: Eleven patients with distinct behaviours of the sexual nature during sleep are described. The features in common with other nonrapid eye movement arousal parasomnias, such as sleepwalking are documented. Some patients had simply been referred to a tertiary sleep clinic for investigation of unrelated sleep problems. A small number had been involved in medicolegal issues. Sexsomnia has some distinct features that separate it from sleepwalking. The automatic arousal is more prominent, motor activities are relatively restricted and specific, and some form of dream mentation is often present. CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of patients with this unusual parasomnia behaviour were identified only after specific questions were asked, suggesting that the behaviour is more common than previously thought. ( info)

7/47. Murder during sleep-walking.

    The issue of criminal responsibility is no easy matter to resolve at times. One such instance is offered by the case of the sleep walker who commits a violent act in the course of his sleep. However, sleep-walking disorder has not received much professional attention. In this article the author reports one case of sleep-waking disorder (somnambulism) in which murder was committed in cold blood. ( info)

8/47. bupropion-induced somnambulism.

    Whereas there are some case reports of bupropion-induced vivid dreaming and nightmares, until now it has not been associated with somnambulism. A case is reported of a patient treated with bupropion as a smoking cessation medication, who developed somnambulism during nicotine withdrawal. Furthermore, the sleepwalking episodes were associated with eating behaviour. amnesia was reported for all episodes. As, on one hand,bupropion is a noradrenergic and dopaminergic drug and nicotine withdrawal, on the other hand, is associated with alterations in monoaminergic functions, an interaction at the level of these neurotransmitters is suggested as the underlying mechanism. ( info)

9/47. somnambulism due to probable interaction of valproic acid and zolpidem.

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of somnambulism due to a probable interaction between valproic acid and zolpidem in a patient with no prior personal or family history of somnambulism. CASE SUMMARY: A 47-year-old white man with a history of bipolar disorder was being maintained on citalopram 40 mg once daily and zolpidem 5 mg at bedtime. During treatment, he developed manic symptoms and was started on adjunctive valproic acid therapy. Soon after this, he developed episodes of somnambulism, which stopped when valproic acid was discontinued. On rechallenge with valproic acid, somnambulism returned. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature describing a probable interaction between valproic acid and zolpidem leading to somnambulism. Even though valproic acid has been associated with sleep changes, there are no published reports of somnambulism with this agent. Zolpidem has been associated with somnambulism, but our patient did not experience this when he was on zolpidem monotherapy. However, within 2 days of starting adjunctive valproic acid, sleepwalking occurred. It stopped after valproic acid was withdrawn. On rechallenge with valproic acid, sleepwalking recurred. However, when zolpidem was discontinued and valproic acid was continued, somnambulism did not occur. An assessment on the Naranjo probability scale suggests probable pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions between the 2 medications. CONCLUSIONS: valproic acid and zolpidem are generally safe medications that are commonly prescribed and often used together. No interactions have been previously reported with combined use of valproic acid and zolpidem. This case suggests a probable interaction between these 2 agents that can have a serious consequence, somnambulism. This could be frightening to patients and put them in danger. Recognition of such interactions that place patients at risk for potentially serious adverse events is imperative for appropriate care. ( info)

10/47. Parasomnia pseudo-suicide.

    Complex behaviors arising from the sleep period may result in violent or injurious consequences, even death. Those resulting in death may be erroneously deemed suicides. A series of case examples and review of the pertinent literature are provided to increase awareness of the possibility that some apparent "suicides" are the unfortunate, but unintentional, consequence of sleep-related complex behaviors and therefore are without premeditation, conscious awareness, or personal responsibility. The correct cause-of-death determination in such cases may have profound social, religious, and insurance implications for surviving friends and family members. ( info)
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